bio ch.22

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bio ch.22
2012-11-08 13:52:41

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  1. respiration
    exchange of oxygen and CO2
  2. pulmonary ventilation
    flow of air in and out of the lungs
  3. external respiration
    exchange of O2 for CO2 at the lungs
  4. internal respiration
    exchange of O2 for CO2 at the individual cells
  5. cellular respiration
    metabolism; the cells will use the O2 in reactions that ultimately produce energy and CO2
  6. gills
    extensions of the body surface for gas exchange; fish
  7. tracheae
    extensive system of internal tubes; insects
  8. spiracles
    holes in insects bodies; openings to tracheae
  9. lungs
    internal sacs to exchange O2 and CO2
  10. the respiratory system starts with the
  11. nose functions
    • incoming air is warmed, moistened, and filtered
    • smells things
    • modifies the sounds for speech; it helps you talk
  12. hard palate
    lower, front portion of nose
  13. soft palate
    lower, back portion of nose
  14. pharynx
  15. eustachian tube
    connects the ear to the pharynx
  16. larynx
    voice box
  17. epiglottis
    cartilage covering larynx; keeps food out of trachea
  18. heimlich maneuver
    used if someone is choking; manually forces the diaphragm upward creating enough pressure to expel an object from the trachea
  19. vocal cords
    in larynx; produce sounds
  20. trachea
  21. bronchi
    branches to each lung
  22. broncholiole
    last microscopic branch before alveoli attached
  23. alveoli
    where O2/CO2 exchange takes place
  24. surfactant
    keeps alveoli open
  25. upper respiratory system
    nose and pharynx
  26. lower respiratory system
    larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
  27. cardiac notch
    left lung has an indention where you can reach the heart without hitting the lung
  28. inhale
    lungs expand, air comes in; diaphragm contracts
  29. exhale
    lung decrease, air goes out; diaphragm relax
  30. eupnea
    normal quiet breathing
  31. apnea
    temporarily stop breathing
  32. dyspnea
    difficult breathing
  33. tachypnea
    rapid breathing
  34. bradypnea
    slow breathing
  35. too much carbon dioxide in bloodstream
    make you take a breath
  36. hypoxia
    low O2 content
  37. anoxia
    no O2
  38. hyperventilitaion
    deep, rapid breaths that rid your body of CO2
  39. hemoglobin
    inside red blood cells; carries more oxygen than plasma alone; carries 4 oxygens;
  40. blood substitutes should
    • be able to transport oxygen
    • deliver oxygen to tissues
    • require no blood typing
    • suitable for long term storage
    • survive in circulation for several weeks
    • free of side effects
    • free of pathogens
  41. sickle cell anemia
    hemoglobin is messed up; carries 2 oxygens; sickled shape
  42. fetal hemoglobin carries more oxygen than
    maternal hemoglobin
  43. asthma
    trachea contracts; no air gets in
  44. emphysema
    any situation where alveoli deterioate; low lung capacity
  45. cystic fibrosis
    bad Cl- transpoter gene; thick mucus, can't breathe
  46. tuberculosis (TB)
    respirtory disease that is spread easily; often resistant to antibiotics