bio ch.23

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bio ch.23
2012-11-08 14:23:20

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  1. circulatory system
    takes oxygen and nutrients to all cells and removes carbon dioxide and waste products
  2. open circulatory system
    blood baths the organs directly; no blood vessels; insects
  3. closed circulatory system
    blood is confined to blood vessels; humans
  4. arteries
    carry blood away from heart
  5. arterioles
    small arteries
  6. capillaries
    where O2/CO2 exchange takes place
  7. venules
    small veins
  8. veins
    carry blood towards the heart
  9. valves
    keep blood in one direction flowing towards the heart
  10. varicose veins
    caused by the failure of vein valves
  11. blood
    made up of red blood cells. white blood cells, platelets, plasma and things that are dissovled in plasma
  12. plasma
    fluid in the bloodstream
  13. superior vena cava
    2nd largest vein that brings in deoxygenated blood from upper body
  14. inferior vena cava
    largest vein that brings deoxygenated blood from lower body
  15. right atrium
    recieves deoxygenated blood; upper chamber on right sideĀ 
  16. tricuspid valve
    connects right atrium and right ventricle
  17. right ventricle
    deoxygenated blood; lower chamber on right side
  18. pulmonary semilunar valve
    connects right ventricle and pulmonary arteries
  19. pulmonary artery
    deoxygenated blood; takes blood to lungs
  20. lungs
    respiratory organ to take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide
  21. pulmonary vein
    oxygenated blood; takes blood back to left atrium
  22. left atrium
    oxygenated blood; upper chamber on left side
  23. bicuspid (mitral) valve
    connects left atrium and left ventricle
  24. left ventricle
    oxygenated blood; lower chamber on left side
  25. aortic semilunar valve
    connects left ventricle and aorta
  26. aorta
    largest artery in the body; carries oxygenated blood to the body
  27. coronanry arteries
    arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygen
  28. heart attack
    complete obstruction of a coronary artery and some of the heart muscle dies from lack of oxygen
  29. angina pectoris
    chest pain from partial obstruction of coronary artery and some of the heart isn't getting enough oxygen
  30. angioplasty
    stick a balloon catheter in expand the balloon , expand the artery, compress the plaque
  31. stent
    use metal mesh to enlarge diamter of artery
  32. bypass surgery
    takes a leg vein and uses it to replace one or more coronary arteries
  33. systole
    heart contraction; higher number
  34. diastole
    heart relaxation; lower number
  35. normal blood pressure
  36. hypertension
    above 140/90; high blood pressure
  37. atherosclerosis
    120/50; hardening of the arteriesĀ 
  38. bad heart
    85/80; heart not pumping good, elastic ok
  39. factors that make heart beat harder
    • hormones
    • high temp
    • high blood pressure
    • high cholesterol/ plaque
    • nicotine
    • fat tissue
    • lack of exercise
  40. erythrocyte
    red blood cell; carries oxygenated blood
  41. anemia
    low number of RBC's
  42. leukocyte
    white blood cell; function in immune response
  43. leukemia
    cancer of leukocyte producing cells; too many immature leukocytes
  44. thrombocyte
    platelts; clot blood
  45. hemophilia
    missing one or more of the clotting factors
  46. stroke
    a blood clot in the brain
  47. thrombosis
    clotting in an unbroken blood vessel
  48. embolus
    piece of blood clot that has broken free and gets lodged in a small blood vessel
  49. there are 4 types of blood
    • a
    • b
    • o
    • ab
  50. antigens
    markers on cells
  51. antibodies
    your body makes against foreign antigens; plasma has antibodies to opposite blood type antigens
  52. hemolysis
    blood bursting from incompatible blood types
  53. you are born with antibodies
    against blood types
  54. you aren't born with antibodies to Rh factor
    first time you are exposed to the Rh factor, you make antibodies; the second time, your antibodies attack and hemolysis kills you
  55. universal donor
    can be give to anybody; type O-
  56. universal recipient
    can recieve any blood type; AB +
  57. hemolytic disease of the newborn
    an Rh mom makes antibodies to an Rh+ baby's blood and attacks the next fetus; prevented by giving mom Rh+ antibodies