A system of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.
-Social Glue that binds memebrs of the organization together
Name the Three Levels of Organizational Culture
Level 1: Observable Artifacts
Level 2: Espoused Values & Enacted Values
Level 3: Basic Assumptions
Define Observable Artifacts
-Physical Manifestations such as manner of dress, awards, myths and stories about the company
-VISIBLE behavior exhibited by managers & employees
EXAMPLE: JCPenny showing a more flexible, informal culture allows business-casual and jeans on fridays
Define Espoused Values and Enacted Values
LEVEL 2 of Organizational Culture
Espoused Values- Explicitly STATED values and norms preferred by an organization
Example: Signs posted stating that Trust is one of the driving principals
Enacted Values-represent the values and norms actually EXHIBITED in the organization
Example: Policy searching employees' upon entering and exiting despite the "trust" principal
Define Basic Assumptions
-LEVEL 3-ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
-Represent the CORE VALUES of the organization's culture
-Those taken for granted and highly resistant to change
example: "Challenge the expected" motivate employees to go outside of their roles
Name the Four FUNCTIONS of Organizational Culture & Give an example
1. It gives members an
Example: Southwest top executives reinforce the co's message=workers should be treated like customers & they celebrate employees who go beyond the call of duty
2. It facilitates
a company that employees are proud to be apart of." Room for career growth, and there is no reason to leave.
3. It promotes Social-System Stability Example: the more effectivley conflict and change are managed the more employees perceive the work enviornment to be posotive and reinforcing. Providing displaced workers with 6 months to find new jobs.
4. It shapes Behavior with SENSE-MAKING DEVICE
Example: Helps employees understand why the organization does what it does and how it intends to accomplish long-term goals. Internship/co-op program provides 30% of new college hires.
Define ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
-a formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates an organization's members so that they can work together that achieve the organization's goals.
Define the ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
-is a box-and-lines illustration showing the formal LINES OF AUTHORITY & the organization's OFFICIAL POSITIONS OR WORK SPECIALIZATIONS
Name the 2 kinds of information that organizational charts reveal about organizational structure
1. The VERTICAL HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY-Who reports to who
2. The HORIZONTAL SPECIALIZATION-
Who specializes in what work
List the 7 Common Elements of an Organization
1. Common Purpose
2. Coordinated Effort
3. Division of Labor
4. Hierarchy of Authority
5. Span of Control
6. Authority, Responsibility & Delegation
Define Common Purpose (1st element of an organization)
The means for unifying employees and giving everyone an understanding of the organization's reason for being.
Define Coordinated Effort (2nd Common element of an organization)
The coordination of individual effort into groups or organization-wide effort.
Define Division of Labor (3rd Common element of an Organization)
AKA Work Specialization for Greater Effeciency
The arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people. An organization can delegate parts of the entire work effort to be performed by specialists thus resulting in greater effeciency.
Define Hierarchy of Authority (4th Common Element of an Organization)
Chain of Command.
A control mechanism for making sure the right people do the right things at the right time.
Authority works better when arranged in a hierarchy
UNITY OF COMMAND- and employee should report to no more than ONE manager.
Define Span of Control (5th Common Element of an Organization)
Span of Management
Refers to the number of people reporting directly to a given manager
1. NARROW (TALL) - manager has limited number of ppl reporting. Example-Three VP'S report to ONE president...instead of 9 VP's
2. WIDE (FLAT) - manager has several ppl reporting. Example- First line supervisor has 40 subordinates