psyc 2301 ch 6

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psyc 2301 ch 6
2012-11-08 15:06:36
general psychology

psyc 2301 ch 6
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  1. stages of memory
    • stage 1-sensory memory
    • stage 2-short term memory
    • stage 3-long term memory
  2. stage 1 memory
    • sensory memory
    • very short time, 1/4 - 3 seconds
    • only studied with vision and hearing
    • includes iconic memory & echoic memory
  3. stage 2 memory
    • short term memory aka working memory
    • fades in approx 20 seconds once attention is lost
    • limited to 7 pieces of info or between 5-9
    • used to malipulate info
    • some require more space than others
  4. stage 3 memory
    • long term memory
    • encoded from short term to long term
    • varies from a few moments to forever
    • explicit & implicit
  5. iconic memory
    • visual sensory memory
    • lasts about 1/2 second
  6. echoic memory
    • auditory sensory memory
    • last 3.4 seconds
    • asking "what did you say" then you answer anyways
  7. purposes of short term memory
    • encodes info for future short term or long term storage
    • retrieves info from long term memory & manipulates it
  8. maintenance rehearsal
    • consists of saying something over and over again until it sticks
    • stores it in short term memory
    • forces you to focus your attention on that info
    • prevents other info from competing for your attention/storage
  9. chunking
    • takes info and groups them into smaller units
    • can improve short term capacity by giving chunks meaning
    • ie: phone numbers, social security number
  10. features of long term memory
    • capacity appears to be limitless
    • retrieval is generally easy and fast
    • duration related to how it was encoded
  11. encoding long term memory
    • maintenance rehearsal-highly ineffective for long-term encoding
    • elaborative rehearsal-giving things meaning and then engaging in rehearsal
  12. what makes for better elaboration
    • self reference effect-put yourself in the story
    • wisual imagery-imagine what you are saying
  13. explicit long term memory
    • also called declarative memory
    • things we are able to talk about
    • semantic & episodic both in hippocampus
  14. sematic (explicit) long term memory
    retrieving general knowledge and facts
  15. episodic (explicit) long term memory
    • retrieving info concerning events or "episodes" in our lives
    • in the frontal lobe
  16. autobiographical memory
    • consists of a special kind of episodic memory where you are the main character
    • helps create a concept of who you are
  17. implicit long term memories
    • also called nodeclarative memories
    • also called procedural memories or how to memories
    • easy to demonstrate but hard to describe
    • in the cerebellum
  18. anygdala
    • involved in ...
    • -emotional memories
    • -emotionally charged events are more likely to be remembered
  19. retrieval cues
    hints or cues that help you retrieve info from long term memory
  20. retrieval failure
    when retrieval cues are inadequate at jogging our memory
  21. tip of tongue phenomenon
    • ability to recall part of a memory but not the entire memory
    • memory retrieval in not all or none
  22. clusters of logical associations
    • how longterm memory is stored
    • if we talk things out we can usually answer the question
  23. flash bulb memory
    • forms in response to exposure to an emotionally charged event
    • not accurate
  24. four reasons why we forget
    • encoding failure
    • decay
    • interference
    • motivated forgetting
  25. encoding failure
    we never really knew it
  26. decay
    • momories fade oer time from lack of use
    • never completely fade away
  27. interference
    retroactive & proactive
  28. retroactive interference
    new memory interferes with the retrieval of an old memory
  29. proactive interference
    old memories compete with the retrieval of new memories
  30. motivated forgetting
    • engaging in a process that promotes forgetting
    • suppression & repression
  31. suppression motivated forgetting
    deliberate concious effort to forget
  32. repression motivated forgetting
    • unconscious effort to forget
    • what most refer to as repression is actually suppression