LAB Urinary Anatomy

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LAB Urinary Anatomy
2012-12-06 13:24:16
Ciotti LCCC kidneys urinary nephron glomerulus II

for A&P II lab exam 3
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  1. What is the major homeostatic organ of the body? What does it regulate
    The kidneys!

    • Regulates:
    • 1. Blood volume
    • 2. Blood Pressure
    • 3. Electrolytes
    • 4. Waste Products
    • 5. pH
  2. How much blood is filtered by the kidneys per minute?
    1/4 of the total blood supply per minute
  3. What is the functional unit of the kidney?
    The Nephron 
  4. What makes up the renal corpuscle?
    the Bauman's capsule and the glomerulus
  5. What percetage of nephrons begin in the cortex
  6. What is the special epithelium of the urinary system?
    • Transitional Epithelium
    • -2 nuclei
    • -expands/recoils
    • -protects against osmotic pressure
    • -kidney calyx to urethral area
  7. What special part controls salt flow and where is it found?
    The Macula Densa is between the two arterioles of the nephron
  8. What is the main function of the urinary system?
    Removal of nitrogenous waste
  9. If the kidneys do the work, what are the other parts of the urinary system used for?
    storage resevoirs or transportation channels for urine
  10. Which kidney is generally high and why?
    the right kidney is slightly lower because it is crowded by the liver
  11. What keeps the kidneys in a retroperitoneal position?
    The renal capsule and the fat deposits keep the kidney attached to the posterior wall
  12. The trigone of the bladder is created by what?
    The two ureter orifices and the urethral orifice
  13. Name the three regions of the male urethra
    prostatic, membranous, and spongy urethrae
  14. What epithelium is found in the loop of henle?
    simple squamous epithelium
  15. What epithelium is found in the proximal convoluted tube and the collecting ducts of the nephron?

    *proximal convoluted tubules have microvilli to increase the surface area
  16. What are the three major renal process and which portion of the nephron takes care of each?
    1. Filtration: Glomerulus

    • 2. Reabsorbtion: proximal convoluted tubule
    • -+/- 80% H2O, glucose, AA

    • 3. Sectretion: Distal Convoluted tubule
    • -pH, drug metabolites
  17. What is urine made of?
    95% water

    • glucose
    • uric acid
    • urea
    • Amino Acids
    • electrolytes
    • drug metabolites
  18. About how many nephrons does each kidney have?
    over 1 million!
  19. What is the technical term for emptying the bladder and what controls relief? How much urine is needed to activate the need for relief?
    called micturition

    the internal urethral sphincter and the external urtehral sphinter control flow of urine from the badder

    every 200-300ml
  20. What is found directly above the kidney?
    Adrenal glands
  21. What kind of epithelium is this and where is it found?
    Transitional epithelium found from the kidney calyx to the urethral area in the bladder

    *mostly in bladder, allows to expansion as bladder fills with urine
  22. By what method does the urine move through the ureters from the kidneys to the bladder?
  23. What is the difference in length between the male and female urethras?
    Male-20cm transports both semen and urine

    Female-4 cm; more prone to UTI and bladder infections
  24. What is this part of the urinary system and what kind of epithelium us this?
    Ureter, the inside is transitional epithelium
  25. What is this and what is its function?
    Glomerulus- filtration (creates the filtrate)
  26. What is there and where is it located?
    This is a medullary ray. It is composed of collecting ducts in the medulla of the kidney
  27. What is this and what is composed of?
    This is the renal cortex, composed of the bulk of the kidney's nephrons.

    It contains numerous glomeruli and loops of henle
  28. What is this and how can you tell?
    This is the outer medulla

    it is characterized by collecting ducts and some loops of henle
  29. What is the membrane called that surrounds the kidney?
    fibrous capsule
  30. Label
  31. Label
  32. Label
    • a- afferent arteriole
    • b. efferent arteriole
    • (blood vessels will be on models)

    • i. collecting duct
    • j. loop of henle
    • k. peritubular capillaries
    • l. distal convoluteed tubule
    • m. proximal convoluted tubule
    • n. glomerulus
  33. label the blood vessels and know the rest too!