psyc 2301 ch 7

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hollyeb
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182542
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psyc 2301 ch 7
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2012-11-08 16:15:26
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general psychology
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psyc 2301 ch 7
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  1. mental images
    mental representations of objects and events that are not physically present
  2. mental rotation
    • measures ones spatial abilities
    • males are better at this
  3. Irwin Silverman
    believes men don't have an advantage concerning all types of spacial skills bc women were gathers
  4. creating concepts
    • engaging in categorization
    • places objects, events, and situations into mental categories
    • formal and natural concepts
  5. formal concepts
    consists of categories based on formally taught inclusion criteria
  6. natural concepts
    • consists of categories that are created bases upon you experiences with the world
    • also called fuzzy concepts
    • only use prototype and exemplers with natural concepts
  7. prototype
    single best example of a category
  8. exemplers
    consist of a few good examples that represent a natural concept
  9. problem solving methods
    • trial & error
    • algorithms
    • heuristics
    • insight
  10. trial and error
    • trying things our until you solve the problem
    • time consuming and not effective
  11. algorithms
    • systematic (nonrandom) rules that allow you to come to the correct solution
    • ie: long division, reading tv manual
  12. heuristics
    • mental short cuts
    • how we solve most problems
    • availability & representativeness heuristics
  13. availability heuristics
    • predict the likelihood of an event
    • can involve personal experiences, doesn't mean you are always accurate
  14. representativeness heuristics
    • estimates the likelihood of an event by seeing how well it fits our expectations
    • fast and accurate
  15. insight
    • concerns the sudden realization of the correct answer
    • riddles often require insight
  16. aptitude
    • measure of ones potential
    • what they can learn
    • IQ test designed to measure this
  17. achievement
    • measure of ones acquired knowledge
    • what have they learned
    • ie: exams
  18. Alfred Binet
    • designed first intelligence test called Simon-Binet test
    • measured memory, attention to detail, and simple reasoning
    • did not include math and reading bc originally these tests were designed to measure aptitude not achievement
    • designed to identify children who needed help learning
  19. The Stanford-Binet test
    • created by Stanford University
    • introduced to idea of creating and intelligence quotient (IQ)
  20. IQ
    mental age / chronological age x 100 = IQ
  21. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (1955)
    • created b David Wechsler
    • test specifically for adults
    • included...
    • -verbal proficiency
    • -spatial ability
    • -logical thinking
  22. IQ test
    • 85-115 average intelligence
    • below 85 below average
    • above 115 above average
  23. 3 problems with IQ tests
    • IQ tests are supposed to measure aptitute but actually measure achievement
    • common IQ tests define IQ too narrowly
    • cultural biases can influence IQ scores
    • based on book smarts
  24. Stanley Kaplan
    • changed the way we see the SAT by helping student study for it and improve which was said not possible
    • proving its a measure of achievement, not aptitute
  25. Robert Sternberg
    • argued three types of intelligences
    • -analytical or book smarts
    • -creative intelligence or ability to think outside of box
    • -proactical or street smarts
    • those with high analytical are thought to pocess the other two
  26. Gardners 8 different kinds of intelligence
    • linguistic
    • logical-mathematical
    • musical
    • bodily-kinesthetic
    • spatial
    • inter-personal
    • intra-personal
    • naturalistic
  27. linguistic intelligence
    concerns one's speaking and reading skills
  28. logical-mathematical intelligence
    concerns one's mathematical and generally reasoning skills
  29. musical intelligence
    concerns one's ability to create, produce and understand music
  30. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
    concerns one's ability to make you body do things
  31. spatial intelligence
    includes the skills associated with mental rotation, spatial location, and spatial navigation
  32. naturalistic intelligence
    concerns skills associated with understanding nature in general
  33. interpersonal intelligence
    • concerns understanding the thoughts and feelings of others
    • high in interpersonal intelligence=people person
  34. intrapersonal intelligence
    concerns understanding one's own inner thoughts and feelings
  35. sterotype threat
    when you are reminded of a negative sterotype associated with your group, you are more likely to perform in line with that stereotype
  36. Claude Steele
    • argued that you are afraid that you will live up to the negative stereotype and as a result become highly anxious
    • with increased anxiety your performance suffers
  37. 2 man pieces of language criteria
    • must have symbolic representation
    • it must show evidence of syntax
  38. symbolic representation
    consists of the representation of objects or events via the use of words, letters symbols or sounds
  39. syntax
    • consists of the grammar rules we use to create and infinite number of meaningful phrases
    • ie: subject, verb, object (dog bits man)
    • only humans use syntax

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