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What are formed concretions in the urethra made up of 95% mineral and <5% matrix?
What are formed concretions in the urethra made up of >50% matrix and struvite is the most common mineral component?
What causes azotemia in cats with urethral obstruction?
- Increased intratubular pressure
- Decreased GFR
- Decreased Renal perfusion
What are major contributing factors to mortality urethra obstructed cats?
- Metabolic acidosis
Is complete urethral obstruction a medical emergency?
How should you place an indwelling catheter?
- 5 Fr polyvinyl catheter
- 3 way stopcock
- Insert to neck of bladder
- Avoid antimicrobials
What is the limit of intravenous potassium supplementation?
Do not exceed 0.5 mEq/kg/hr
What is the most common stone type in dogs?
Where are struvite stones most commonly found?
What plays a primary role in pathogenesis in dogs for struvite urolithiasis?
UTI with urease-positive bacteria (Staph, proteus, etc...)
What breeds are at risk for oxalate urolithiasis?
- Miniature Schnauzer
- Lhasa apso
- Yorkshire terrier
- Bichone frise
- Shih tzu
- Miniature poodle
What type of history is common in struvite urolithiasis?
- Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon frise, Lhasa apso, Shih tzu, and miniature poodle
- Female > male
- Generally young
What type of history is common in oxalate urolithiasis?
- Same breeds
- Male > female
- Generally older
How should you analyze stones in urolythiasis?
- Not qualitative
- YES quantitative (optical crystallography)
What does radiopacity of stones depend on?
How much calcium phosphate is present
What is a shockwave generated in close proximity to urolith in bladder under cystoscopic visualization?
Electrohydraulic shock wave lithotripsy
What is a shockwave generated outside the body and transmitted to patient through water?
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Is there an effective medical dissolution protocol for oxalate stones?
How long does dissolution of struvite stones take using a calculolytic diet?
2-3 months and continue for 1 additional month
What are some signs that point to struvite urolithiasis?
- Urease-positive UTI
- Alkaline urine
- Struvite crystalluria
- Radiodense calculus
What type of urate calculi are seen in dogs usually?
Ammonium acid urate
How do you prevent urate urolithiasis?
- Feed low protein, low purine diet
- Add allopurinol if persists