GOV 310L Exam 3

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  1. Agents of Political Socialization
    family, school, media, peers/community, general life experience
  2. Aggregate partisanship 
    • distribution/percentage of the electorate that
    • identifies with each party
  3. Aggregate Publican Opinion 
    sum of all individual opinions
  4. Attitude
    • introduce bias into perceptions/interpretations of
    • political information
  5. Benchmark Survey
    • campaign poll that measures a candidates strength at
    • time of entrance into electoral race
  6. Cognitive Shortcuts
    • when we make
    • complex decision on small amount of information (abortion)
  7. Coservatives
    favor government action to be involved with social/economic qualities
  8. Core Values
    • beliefs that are stable and resistant to change,
    • integral to an identity; individual liberty, political equality, rule of law
  9. Framing
    • providing a
    • context that affects the criteria citizens use to evaluate candidates,
    • campaigns, etc
  10. Leading Questions
    • first question can set mindsets and affect later
    • responses
  11. Liberal
    • political philosophy with government involvement but
    • limited; belief of tradition institutions/values; favor free enterprise and oppose government regulation (economic conservative)
  12. Measurement Error
    • people
    • listen to opinion leaders; people say X but people understand/hear Y
  13. NonAttitudes
    opinion generated but doesn’t exist in reality 
  14. Open Ended v. Close Ended
    • ‘yes/no’ may not
    • really be how people feel because some are partial rather than definite ‘ramble
    • ramble ramble’ can be difficult to analyze
  15. Opinion Leaders
    • citizen who
    • is highly attentive to politics, someone you trust and pay attention to
  16. Political Culture
    basic values and how you live, dominate values in a political community 
  17. Political Efficacy 
    how much you can change things, how you can make a difference
  18. Political Idealogy 
    how do you feel about politics? Socially and Economically 
  19. Political Socialization 
    • process by which citizens develop how you feel about
    • things: family, friends, school, media, events, religion, edu, race, gender,
    • job, class, income, region, age
  20. Population 
    all the inhabitants of a particular town, area or country
  21. Presidential Approval Rating
    • how many people think the president is doing a good
    • job, tends to decline over time but increases during certain events
  22. Probability Sampling
    • same as Random Sampling-idea that everyone should have an equal
    • probability for being a sample 
  23. Publica Opinion
    what other people think, opinions held by private institutions
  24. Common things people agree on 
    • right to
    • vote, freedom of speech, basic ideas, do procress, equal treatment in courts
  25. Push Poll 
    • campaign that attacks individual by providing negative information on an
    • opposing candidate
  26. Random Sampling
    idea that everybody should have an equal probability for being a sample
  27. Sample
    small portion of citizens chosen to represent a whole
  28. Sampling Bias
    • (over
    • sampling, undersampling, wording, order, etc)

    • Self-Selection Bias-seeing random
    • poll on the internet, when those more likely to support something vote on it. 
  29. Sampling Error
    • statistical dead heat, when people say Obama has the
    • lead in the election he could be plus or minus
  30. Scientific Polling
    • tool
    • developed investigate the opinions of ordinary people, based on random samples
  31. Straw Polls
    unscientific survey of views
  32. What shapes how we Think?
    • political party identification, partisanship (voting
    • cue and source of personal identity)
  33. Who shapes how we think?
    • family, friends, school, media, events, religion,
    • education, race, gender, jobs, class, income, region, age
  34. 15th Amendment
    • right to
    • vote cannot be restricted by race, color or previous servitude for all MEN
  35. 19th Amendment
    Women got the right to vote
  36. 23rd Amendment 
    • gave DC presidential electors so that individuals who
    • lived there could vote for president and vice president
  37. 26th Amendment
    • set minimum voting age ofr 18 for all federal, state and local
    • elections
  38. 501c
    • IRS tax
    • code, designation for a non-profit, tax exempt group that can engage in some
    • political activity depending on the type of the group 
  39. 527
    • Tax exempt
    • organization, can engage in political activity often with unlimited soft money,
    • try to influence elections through voter mobilization efforts, must report
    • contributions/expenditures to the IRS 
  40. Candidate
    person running for office
  41. coordinated spending
    spend money on congressional candidates
  42. direct mobilization
    asking people to vote
  43. Electoral College
    • what do you need to win, how calculated, where most
    • focused, what if no majority)-need majority to win (270) not plurality;
    • House+Senate=Electoral College; if no candidate gets  a majority, the president’s election goes to
    • the House (each state gets 1 vote) and the VP’s goes to the Senate (each
    • Senator gets 1 vote)
  44. How do people Vote
    Political Party, External factors? (appearance matters, height = more authoritative), Prospective/Retrospective voting
  45. Idiot
    someone who does not participate in politics
  46. Levels of participation
    low->high: spectator activity, convincing someone to vote, contact public official, give money, going to political meeting, passing out flyers, attending a strategy meeting, raising money,  becoming candidate, serving in office
  47. Low Turnout
    why-too busy, registration, absentee voting requires effort, number of elections, vote attitudes, time conflicts
  48. Mandate Theory
    • when they win big in a state they may lose popular vote but win in electoral college
    • Message
  49. Mobilization
     Indirect-networks of fired to activate participation-peer pressure; direct- asking people to vote
  50. Negative Campaigning
    attack a person and their platform, drives out voters
  51. Open v. closed polling-
    closed people are only allowed to vote in their precinct (republican votes in republican caucus); closed-able to chose regardless of party affiliation 
  52. Participation-low->high: 
    spectator activity, convincing someone to vote, contact public official, give money, going to political meeting, passing out flyers, attending a strategy meeting, raising money,  becoming candidate, serving in office
  53. Party identification
    Individuals enduring affective or instrumental attachment to one of the political parties; most accurate single predictor of voting behavior.
  54. Party label-
    label carrying the party’s brand name, incorporating the policity positions and past performance voters attribute to it
  55. Prospective voting-
    what the candidate promises to do in the future
  56. Retrospective voting
    voting on what the candidate had done in the past
  57. Single issue voters-
    base their cotes on one issue regardless of stances on other issues
  58. Soft money
    -money used by parties for voter registration, public education, voter mobilization
  59. VAP and VEP-
    Voting Available Population; Voting Eligible Population
  60. Voter fatigue
    theory that because there are so many elections in the IS, voters no longer want to participate in every election
  61. What factor effect voting and participation
    education, age, geographical region, race, strong partisan views (republicans more likely to vote unless one is strictly committed to one part), wealth, gender
  62. What makes American elections unique?-
    two party system, lots of elections, elections are separate from each other, elections have fixed terms and are ona fixed day, winner takes all election, VAP v. VEP
  63. Winner take all- 
    like Texas, if the candidate wins a states it will be assigned the total number of electors for that state
  64. Australian ballot
    private voting, reduced corruption
  65. Blanket primary
    rare in states, more towards small states/small population (AK); on one sheet of paper you can vote for the president, house of representatives and senate regardless of party NOT ON THE TEST 
    Caucus (as an alternative to a primary)-
    closed meeting of political or legislative group to choose candidate for office or to decided issues of policy; tend to take all day; vote is not private 
  67. Coalition government
    ave to get 50%+1 when two or more parties get together
  68. Coat tail effect
    typically the party goes down by midterms, local and state candidates win by the president’s political party 
  69. Dealignment-
    more independence in government/people, when a group of people start to become independence and there is a reduction in a major party numbers without being replaced in the rival party 
    Differences between Republican party  v. Democratic party 
    • (state parties, primaries/caucuses)- Democratic Party has the same system for every state, while the Republican Party rules differ from state to state.
    • Democratic party (state parties, primaries/caucuses)
  71. Direct primary
    can only vote for the party you associate with-Republicans can only vote for republicans 
  72. Divided government
    when the president is of one party and atleast one chamber in congress is a different party 
  73. Duverger’s Law-i
    Duverger’s Law-in a system where there is plurality (whoever gets the most votes wins) it encourages two party systems
  74. Electoral College(swing states, how basically works)-
    body of electors in each state, chosen by voters, who formally elect the president and vice president of the US. Each states number of electoral votes equals its representation in Cognress, DC has 3 votes, an absolute majority of the totally electoral vote is require to elect a president and vice president
  75. Fusion tickets-
    the Republican party after the civil war was fractioned so the ran campaigns on  fusion Tickets, usually banned now, a slate of candidate are fused together for minor and major parties, a small party can increase the number of people voting for them by joining together with a major party to get more votes for the local election
  76. National chair
    in charge of day to day operations of national party 
    National party conventions
    where the platform is written and who is going to run for president 
  78. New Deal coalition
    • Roosevelt had the New Deal, brought people together who made the basis of the
    • Democratic dominance, Catholics, Jews, Racial Minorities, all for democrats for different reasons
  79. Open v. closed primary
    closed primary-only republicans can vote in the republican primary; democrats can only vote in the democratic primary, independents cannot; open primary-only allowed to vote in one primary but it doesn’t matter which party 
  80. Organizational structure of Democratic and Republican parties
    inform electorate, support candidates, conventions, national committees, congressional campaigns,
  81. Party convention
    meeting of a political party in order to vote for a candidate 
  82. Party platform
    statement of principles and campaign promises
  83. Party systems (first, second, third, fourth, fifth)
    • 1-(1790-1820) Found Period- Federalist v. Antifederalist-Revolution of 1800
    •                 2-(1820-1850) Patronage/spoils System-Jacksonian Era-1832 First National Party Convention
    •                 3-(1850-1890)-Machine Era-corrupt local level organizations that controlled politics, progressive
    • era-(1880-1920)-when people get fed up from corruptions-Australian Ballot-secret ballot, vote is private
    • 4-(1869-1932)-End with the Great Depression
    • 5-(1932-)-New Deal Coalition
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GOV 310L Exam 3
2012-11-08 22:47:25
Exam GOV 310L Brien Government

GOV 310L Exam 3 Flashcards
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