Chapter 14 review

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servinggod247
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Chapter 14 review
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2012-11-13 23:27:21
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anatomy
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  1. What percent of the body's neural tissue does the adult brain contain?
    97 %
  2. The six reginons in the adult brain are the 
    • 1. Cerebrum
    • 2. Cerebellum
    • 3. Diencephalon
    • 4. Midbrain
    • 5. Pons
    • 6. Medulla oblongata
  3. The brain contains extensive areas of _____ ________, a layer of gray matter on the surfaces of the cerebrum and cerebellum
    neural cortex
  4. The brain forms from three swellings at the superior tip of the developoing neural tube: the ______, _______, and _________
    • mesencephalon 
    • rhombencephalon 

    prosencephalon
  5. The prosencephalon (forebrain) forms the _________ (which becomes the cerebrum) and the _______
    • telechealon
    • diencephalon
  6. THe rhombencephalon (hindbrain) forms the ___________ (cerebellum and pons) and ________ (medula oblongata)
    • metencephalon
    • myelencephalon
  7. THe central passageway of the brain expands to form chambers called 
    ventricles
  8. Ventricals contain
    cerebrospinal fluid
  9. THe brain is protected and supported by the 
    • Cranial meninges
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Blood-Brain-Barrier
  10. The _____________ ( dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater) are continuous with those of the spinal cord
    cranial meninges
  11.  what includes  falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli and falx cerebelli and stablize the postion of the brain
  12. folds of dura mater
  13. CSF does what
    • Protects delicate neural structures
    • Supports the brain
    • Transports nutrients, chemical messengers, and waste products
  14. CFS is produces at the ______ __________, reaches the subarachnoid space through the ______ and ________ apertures, and diffuses across the _______ ___________ into the ____________ _____________ _________
    • choroid plexus
    • lateral and median apertures
    • arachnoid granulations
    • superior sagittal sinus
  15. The _________________ isolates beural tissue from the general circulation
    blood-brain-barrier
  16. THe BBB is incomplete in parts of the 
    • hypothalmus
    • pituitary gland
    • pineal gland
    • choroid plexus
  17. The _______ _________ is continuous with the spinal cord and contains vital centers
    medulla oblongata
  18. The meduall oblongata connects the ____ and _______
    • brain 
    • spinal cord
  19. THe medulla oblongata contains relay stations such as the _______ _______, and relex centers including the _______  and _________ centers
    • olivary nuclei
    • cardiovascular
    • respiratory rhythmicity
  20. THe _____ ____________ begins in the medulla oblongata and extends into more superior portions of the brain stem
    reticular formation
  21. The ______ contains nuclei and tracts that carry or relay sensory and motor info
    pons
  22. The ____ contains sensory and motor nuclei for 4 cranial nerves, nuclei that hlep control respiration, nuclei and tracts lining the cerebellum with the brain stem, cerebrum, and spinal cord, and ascending decending and tansverse tracts.
    pons
  23. The ____________ coordinates learned and reflexive patterns of muscluar activity at the subconscious level 
    cerebellum
  24. THe cerebellum adjusts _______ _______ and programs and tunes ongoing movements
    postural muscles
  25. The _______ consist of the anterior and posterior lobes, vermis, flocculondular lobe.
    cerebellar hemisphere
  26. The ______, ____________, and ______________ link the cerebellum with the brain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and spinal cord and interocnnect the two cerebellar hemispheres
    superior, middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles
  27. The _____________ regulates auditory and visual reflexes and controls alertness
    midbrain
  28. The ______ (roof of the midbrain) contains the 
    • tectum
    • corpora quadrigemina (superior colliculi and inferior colliculi)
  29. The tegmentum contains the 
    • red nucleus
    • substantia nigra
    • cerebral preduncles
    • the headquaters of the reticular activation  system
  30. The ____________ integrates sensory info with motor output at the subconscious level
    diencephalon
  31. The diencephalon is composed of the 
    • epithalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • thalamus
  32. The _________ is the final relay point for ascending sensory info and coordinates the activities of the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex
    thalmus
  33. THe hypothalmus can
    • 1. Control somatic motor activities at the subconscious level
    • 2. Control autonomic function
    • 3. Coordinate activites of the nervous and endocrine systems
    • 4. Secrete hormones
    • 5. Produce emotions and behavioral drives
    • 6. Cooridinate voluntary and autonomic functions
    • 7. Regulate body temp
    • 8. Coordinate circadian cycles of activity
  34. The _______________ is a group of tracts and nuclei with various functions
    limbic system
  35. The limbic system includes 
    • Amygdaloid body
    • Cingulate gyrus
    • Dentate gyrus 
    • Parahippocampal gyrus
    • Hippocampus
    • Fonix
  36. The functions of the limbic system involve
    emotion states and related behavioral drives
  37. The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain and contains
    • Motor areas
    • Sensory areas
    • Association areas
  38. THe cortical surface of the cerebrum contains ____ (elevated ridges) separated by ___ (shallow depressions) or _____ (deeper grooves)
    • gyri
    • sulci
    • fissures
  39. THe ____________ separates the two cerebral hemispheres 
    longitudinal fissure
  40. The ________ _______ separates the fronal and parietal lobes
    central sulcus
  41. Other sulic form the boundaries of the ________ and _______ lobes
    • temporal 
    • occipital  
  42. THe white matter of the cerebrum contains
    • association fibers
    • commissural fibers
    • projection fibers
  43. The ___________ include the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen
    basal nuclei
  44. The basal nuclei control _________, and coordinate 
    • muscle tone 
    • learned movement pattersn and other somatic motor activites
  45. The primary motor cortex of the ......  directs voluntary movements
    percental gyrus 
  46. THe primary sensory cortex of the ........ recieves sensory info from touch, pressure, pain, vibration, taste, and temp receptors
    postcentral gyrus
  47. ______________ control our ability to understand sensory info and coordinate a motor response
    Association areas
  48. Association areas includ
    • somatic sensory association area
    • visual association area
    • premotor cortex (somatic motor association area)
  49. The _________________ recieves info from all the sensory association areas and presents in only one hemisphere, usally the left
    general interpretive area
  50. The ........ regulate sthe patterns of breathing and vocalization needed for normal speech
    speech center
  51. The ..... coordinates info from the secondary and special assocation areas of the entire cortex and performs abstract intellectual functions
    prefrontal cortex
  52. The left hemisphere typically contains ..... and is responsible for .....
    • the general interpretive and speech centers
    • language-based skills
  53. The right hemisphere is typically responsible for .....
    spacial relationships and analysis
  54. Brain activity is meased using an 
    electroencephalogram
  55. ...... appear in healthy resting adults; ...... occure when adults are concentraing; ..... appear in children; ..... are normal during sleep
    • alpha waves
    • beta waves
    • theta waves
    • delta waves
  56. Cranial reflexes are ...... and ....... that involve sensory and motor fibers of cranial nerves
    monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex arcs

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