unit 2 123

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unit 2 123
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2012-11-11 12:21:46
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  1. Precordium
    anterior chest are that cover heart and great vessels 
  2. Atria tilt??
    backward slightly 
  3. Ventricle tilt????
    forward slightly 
  4. Unoxygenated blood goes through
    • superior vena cava
    • R atrium 
    • Tricuspid vavle
    • R ventricle 
    • Pulmonary artery to lung
  5. Oxygenated blood goes through
    • Pulmonary veins 
    • L atrium
    • Mitral valve 
    • L ventricle 
    • Aortic valve
    • Aorta
    • Body
  6. Blood to myocardium is from
    • left and right coronary arteries 
    • LCA
    • RCA
    • During diastole, pressure must be 60 mmHg
  7. Diastole
    • DUB
    • relaxation of Ventricles---Filling phase 
    • S2
    • close of semilunar valves--aortic & pulmonic valves
  8. Systole
    • LUB
    • ventricle contraction--pumping phase into systemic & pulonary systems 
    • S1
    • closing of AV valves---mitral & tricuspid valves
  9. SA node (sinoatrial)
    pacemaker--initiates electric impulse 
  10. AV node (atrioventricular)
    cardiac muscle fibers in wall of r-atrium, receives heartbeat impulse from SA node, directs to wall of ventricle 
  11. Bundle of His
    Bundle of cardiac muscle fibers that conducts the electrical impulse that regulate the heartbeat
  12. Purkinje fibers
    locate in inner ventricle wall of heart, myocardial fibers that conduct an electrical impulse that enables the heart to contract
  13. Impulse wave letters
    PQRST
  14. SA to AV wave?
    • P wave-atrial stimulation
    • SA 60-100 times a min
  15. Bundle of his wave?
    QRS complex 
  16. Repolarization of ventricle wave?
    T wave
  17. Cardiac output
    • 4-7 liters/min
    • HRxSV
  18. Heart rate 
    number of times the ventricle contracts per min
  19. Stroke volume
    amout of blood ejected by left ventricle during systole
  20. Preload
    • End of diastole--degree of stretch-the more the heart if filled the more forcefully it contracts
    • INCREASE blood pressue on right side of heart
  21. Afterload
    • resistance the ventricles must overcome to pump out blood
    • The pressure of the body system in relation to the pressure needed for heart to pump against body pressure
  22. Left side heart
    blood goes to body
  23. Right side heart 
    goes to lung 
  24. Pulmonary arteries
    bring unoxygenated blood to lungs from heart
  25. Pulmonary veins
    bring O2 blood to heart through mitral valve to ventricle
  26. Central venous pressure
    right artrial pressure-reflects the amount of blood returning to heart
  27. CHF
    left side congestion-pulmonary edema-prevents blood from returning to heart to go to lungs-creates pooling in extremities and organs in abdomen (liver)
  28. Mitral regergitation
    back flow of blood back to ventrical due to poor function of mitral valve "Murmur"
  29. Hypertension effects on heart muscle 
    • causes left ventricle muscle to get thick and stiff 
    • causes S4 sound 
  30. Varicose veins caused by
    valve not functioning properly which leads to ulcer 
  31. Arterial iscemia 
    dry, at toe, poor circulation, wound edges defined round
  32. Edema effects on body
    right side heart failure, back up pressure and flow from body  returning to heart 
  33. Deep vein thrombosis 
    clot from veins in the leg that can travel heart 
  34. Lymphadema 
    blockage or removal of lymph node that causes fluid to build  up and is perminent 
  35. Lymph system
    • filters blood, removes extra fluid
    • travels to venous system then to heart 
  36. Epitrophlear node 
    • in elbow goes from hand to armpit
    • ulscer or edema below elbow if problem with node
  37. Atrial depolarization (P wave) is?
    • SA to AV node systole 
    • squeeze blood down into ventricle 
  38. Repolarization (T wave) is?
    • blood comes into ventrical at filling stage
    • diastole
    • HR to fast you may not see T wave--means low blood supply---no O2 getting to heart muscle=low CO=low BP
  39. Ischemia
    • Low O2
    • low blood supply to ALL organs including heart muscle 
  40. S3 sounds??
    • Gallops
    • passive filling phase during DIASTOLE into noncompliant ventricle 
  41. S4 sounds???
    • Pathologic
    • may be heard with advanced age due to stiffened ventricle
  42. Summation Gallop=
    • Both S3 and S4 sounds 
    • severe heart failure
  43. Murmur grades
    • 1=faint
    • 2=soft
    • 3=moderate
    • 4=loud
    • 5=very loud
    • 6=stethoscope off chest
  44. Pericardial friction
    inflammation of pericardial membrane
  45. Ejection Click
    early systole, stiff deformed valve, high pitched, apex diaphragm
  46. Opening snap
    Immediately after S2 stenotic mitral or tricuspid valve recoild during diastole
  47. Arteries 
    Pump freshly oxygenated blood to all of body 
  48. Veins 
    Darins deoxygenated blood from body 
  49. Deep veins
    mostly in legs return blood back to heart 
  50. Superfical veins 
    • great-inner thigh
    • small-outer calf 
  51. Lymphatic system
    Retrieves excess fluid from tissue and returns it to blood stream 
  52. Right lymphatic system
    dumpes in right subclavical vein right side of body
  53. Thoracic duct
    drains rest of body into subclavian vein
  54. Nodes 
    • Filter the fluid befor it is returned to the blood stream 
    • filters out micoorganisms 
  55. Cervical nodes 
    drain the head and neck
  56. Epitrochlear node 
    drains hand and lower arm
  57. Inguinal node 
    in groin lower extremities ect.
  58. Spleen 
    destroys old RBC, produces antibodies, store RBC, filter micro's
  59. Thymus
    developes T lymphocytes 
  60. ABI idex
    ankle-brachial index 0.90 or less=peripherial arterial disease 
  61. Raynauds Phenomenon
    white blue red color of hands 
  62. Lymphedema 
    High protien swelling of limb, builds up in interstital space 
  63. Edema Pitting scale
    • 1=mild pitting 
    • 2=moderate pitting 
    • 3=deep pitting 
    • 4=very deep pitting
  64. Allen test
    include ratial and ulnar arteries
  65. Three names of abdomen division
    • Epigastric 
    • Umbilical
    • Hypogastic-Suprapubic
  66. UR quad organs 
    Liver gallbladder duodenum right kidney ascending and transverse colon
  67. UL quad organs
    stomach spleen left kidney transverse and descending colon 
  68. LR quad organs 
    cecum appendix right ovary right ureter
  69. LL quad organs
    descending colon sigmoid colon left ovary left ureter 
  70. Vascular sounds
    bruit over aorta renal arteries iliac arteries and femoral arteries 
  71. Liver span
    6-12cm
  72. Organal megaly
    deep palpation of organs 
  73. Blumbergs sign
    • rebound tenderness 
    • push finger straight into gut and c if pt has pain
  74. External male genitalia
    penis and scrotum
  75. Internal male genitalia 
    • testes 
    • epididymis 
    • vas deferens 
  76. Testicular self exam TSE
    • 14yo start 
    • smooth rubbery
    • white men @ hight risk
    • T=timing once a month
    • S=shower-warm water relaxes scrotal sac
    • E=examine-report changes immediately 
  77. Criptocidisms 
    non desending testicle 
  78. Nervous system
    • divided in two strucural parts
    • Central and Peripheral nervouse systems 
  79. Central nervous system 
    brain and spinal cord 
  80. Peripheral nervous system
    • 12 cranial nerves
    • 31 spinal nerves 
  81. Neurons 
    Basic structures for receiving and sending signals 
  82. Dentrites 
    recieve signals 
  83. Axons 
    send signals 
  84. Synapse
    space between axon and dendrite
  85. Cerebrum
    • largest part of brain
    • 2 hemispheres 
    • 4 lobes Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
  86. Frontal
    conceptualization, motot ability and judgment, thought process, emotion, personality behaviors
  87. Parietal
    Interpretation of sensory info, ability to recognize body parts 
  88. Temporal 
    Memory storage, integration of auditory stimuli
  89. Occipital
    Visual center 
  90. Cerebellum
    • base of back of brain
    • balance and cordination
    • controls skeletal muscle & voluntary movement 
  91. Thalamus 
    relay station for the nervous system, sorts out impulses and directs then to the cerbral cortex 
  92. Hypothalamus 
    • maintains homeostasis by controlling vital functions
    • temp, HR, BP, pituitary regulator, emotions 

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