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whole entity classifiers
- use for locating objects in space.
- CL: b (flat surface- table) (mirror, picture)
- CL: c (cylindrical shape- pot)
- CL: l (think stick or person standing- pencil)
- CL: v bent (person sitting/small animal/chair- chairs in semi-circle)
- CL: a (undifferentiated object- TV on a table) (a > figurine)
- CL: ll (thin circular-shaped object- clock bent// square)
- CL: cc (large cylindrical shape- trash can, couch)
- CL: bb (flat-surfaced object- wall, table, shelf)
- CL: c --> (drawer)
- CL: c down (file cabinet, column)
using classifiers to establish locations of people, places, and things
- using classifiers requires that the noun it refers to be identified first. a signer may with to express that a table is lcated on the right side of a room. The signer will create a predicate phrase using the while entity classifier cl:b.
- When 2 objects that can be represented by classifiers are included in a predicate phrase, a complex classifier form involving the use of both is used. A signer may wish to express that there is a cup on a table. Both the table and the cup may be represented by whole entity classifiers forming a complex, 2 handed classifier form.
classifiers may be used to represent more than one of something. when representing more than one, the classifier handshape is moved in space with a sweeping motion or repeated in diff locations in the signing space to indicate 2 or more inanimate objects represented by the classifier. the exact number may or may not be specified.
using indexing to specify locations
indexing is used at the end of a sentence when describing the location of people, places, & things. the final sign in a description of the location of an object will be pointing with the index finger to the location where the obejct has been described.
using eye gaze to locate people, places, & things
eye gaze is an important aspect of ASL communication. eye gaze is sometimes used alone or in comboination with indexing to loate people, places, & things in space. The signer's eye gaze must be consistent with the spatial referents established.
non-manual signal "cs" for proximity in space
involves moving the shoulder of your dominant signing hand slightly down and moving the cheek & side of your mouth toward your shoulder.
dead & hard-of-hearing people rely on their eyes to orient themselves in their environments. in setting up an office, dead people generally place their desks or computer stations in locations that allow them to monitor their doors for visitors. a deaf-friendly office will generally also have a flashing telephone ring to signal an incoming telephonecall & the deaf-friendly work desk will have a videophone or TTY ready to connect with an incoming call. Many deaf-friendly computer stations are equipped with videoconferencing & video interpreting technology to facilitate direct internet ASL comm with co-workers in remote locations
gaining attention in an office
- when working with deaf co-workers, it is important to consider appropriate strategies for gaining their attention in office environments. Deaf co-workers may be focused intently on working at their workstations & may not see someone approach their doorways. if the office is equipped with a flashing light, it is appropriate to walk into the deaf person's office & lightly tap them on the shoulder. your main objective should be to avoid startling them.
- it is also common for deaf people to be engaged in phone conversations using TTY machines or videophones. you should not attempt to engage in conversation until your deaf co-worker signals that they are ready to do so.
modifying time adverbals for duration
may be inflected to express that an activity continued over a long period. signers make the movement of the sign slowly & use the non-manual marker "puffed cheeks" to emphasize their perceptions about the length of time.
share the same handshape, location, & palm orientation, but they are distinguished by their movements. nouns have repeated movements & verbs have single continuous movements. Ex- hunt (verb- one), hunting (noun- 2)
- beginning with the end & end with the beginning establishes the topic, & states the signer's feelings about the event. the signer is beginning their narrative with the end by telling when they will be talking about & how enjoyable the experience was.
- the body of a well-constructed ASL narrative will specify all the details the signer wishes to share about the experience.
- the conclusion will restate the opening, a highlight of trip, and how much they enjoyed the trip.
- was first described by Babov & Waletzky as diamond shaped, with the top or beginning being the topic, widening out to indicate all the deatils, and concluding at the bottom of the diamond with a restatements of the topic.
changing topics in a conversation using "to-set-aside"
signers may indicate that they wish to change topics during conversations with the sign to set aside. this sign is used within a topic/comment sentence structure.
closing conversation with :thumbs up"
when close acquaintances part company after a conversation, they often will use the thumbs up gesture. this gesture means "wishing everything goes well for you." it has a friendly way of wishing someone well when pasrting company.
sports & the deaf community
- deaf people highly value opportunities to compete with one another in atheltic events & to socialize with deaf community members. a strong tradition of team sports has become an important part of the residential school experience for deaf students & these positive experiences have carried over into deaf club sports competitons & tournaments.
- the 1st basketball tournament among deaf clubs was sponsored by the Akron Club of the deaf in Ohio in 1945. this led to the establishment of the American Athletic Union of the Deaf/ American Athletic Association of the Deaf (AAAD) in 1997, the AAAD was renamed the USA Deaf Sports Federation (USADSF)
- the USADSF & similar organizations of deaf & hard of hearing athletes from countries all over the world hold the World Games of the Deaf (WGD) every 4 years. in 1924, 133 atheletes from 9 nations gathered in Paris, France to participate in the 1st WGD.
getting together as a cultural value
getting together is a valued activity & is considered a cultural value. deaf people take advantage of opportunities to find time to get together by going to bowling leagues & other events sponsored by local Deaf clubs & other deaf-run organizations. it is cherished because it generally is the only time they can express themselves freely by using ASL w/o restrictions.
- deaf people often alter the rules to accommodate a visual way of comm. many of the hand signals used by hearing people in certain sports originated with Deaf playingers. William E Dummy Hoy, a major league baseball player from 1888-1902, is credited with developing the hand signals used by baseball umpires.
- the idea of huddling to protect the play in football on the field was quickly picked up by hearing teams that played against Gallaudet College.
- when deaf people play board or card games, they also accommodate some of the rules to a visual-gestural mode of comm. when playing Uno, deaf people have an object on the table that must be picked up quickly.