Ch 12 Med Term

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chrastini
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182706
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Ch 12 Med Term
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2012-11-09 16:41:04
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gastrointestinal med term 12
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Ch 12
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  1. abdomin/o, celi/o, lapar/o
    abdomen
  2. an/o
    anus
  3. appendic/o
    appendix
  4. bil/i, chol/e
    bile
  5. bucc/o
    cheek
  6. cheil/o
    lip
  7. col/o, colon/o
    colon
  8. cyst/o
    bladder or sac
  9. dent/i
    teeth
  10. doch/o
    duct
  11. duoden/o
    duodenum
  12. enter/o
    small intestine
  13. esophag/o
    esophagus
  14. gastr/o
    stomach
  15. gingiv/o
    gum
  16. gloss/o, lingu/o
    tongue
  17. hepat/o, hepatic/o
    liver
  18. herni/o
    hernia
  19. ile/o
    ileum
  20. inguin/o
    groin
  21. jejun/o
    jejunum (empty)
  22. lith/o
    stone
  23. or/o, stomat/o
    mouth
  24. pancreat/o
    pancreas
  25. peritone/o
    peritoneum
  26. phag/o
    eat or swallow
  27. proct/o
    anus and rectum
  28. pylor/o
    pylorus (gatekeeper)
  29. rect/o
    rectum
  30. sial/o
    saliva
  31. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon (resembles)
  32. steat/o
    fat
  33. -emesis 
    vomiting
  34. oral cavity, mouth
    cavity that recieves food for digestion
  35. salivary glands
    three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva: the parotoid, the submandibular (submaxillary), and the sublingual glands
  36. cheeks
    lateral walls of mouth
  37. lips
    fleshy structures surrounding mouth
  38. palate
    structure that forms the roof of the mouth; divided into the hard palate and the soft palate
  39. uvula
    small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate
  40. tongue
    muscular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and secure by a band-like membrane known as the frenulum
  41. gums
    tissue covering the processes of the jaws
  42. teeth
    hard bony projections in the jaws for masticating food
  43. pharynx
    throat; passage way for food traveling to the esophagus and for air to the larynx
  44. esophagus
    muscular tube that moves food from pharnyx (throat) to stomach
  45. stomach
    sac-like organ that chemically mixes and prepares food recieved from the esophagus
  46. cardiac sphincter
    opening from esophagus to stomach (sphincter = band)
  47. pyloric sphincter
    opening from stomach into the duodenum
  48. small intestine
    small tubular structure that digests food recieved from the stomach
  49. duodenum
    first portion of small intestine
  50. jejunum
    second portion of small intestine
  51. ileum
    third portion of small intestine
  52. large intestine
    larger tubular structure that recieves liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation
  53. cecum
    first part of large intestine
  54. vermiform appendix
    worm like projection of lymphatic tissue hanging off  the cecum with no digestive function; may help to resist infection
  55. colon
    portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum; identified by direction and shape
  56. ascending colon
    portion of colon that extends upward from the cecum
  57. transverse colon
    portion of colon that extends across from ascending cecum
  58. descending colon
    portion of colon that extends downward from transverse
  59. sigmoid colon
    portion of the colon resembling an S in shape that terminates at rectum
  60. rectum
    distal portion of large intestine
  61. rectual ampulla
    dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal
  62. anus
    opening of rectum to the outside of the body
  63. feces
    waste formed by the absorption of water in the large intestine; usually solid
  64. defecation
    pooping
  65. periotneum
    membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity and consisting of the parietal layer (lining abdominal wall) and the visceral layer (covering each organ in the ab)
  66. peritoneal cavity
    space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
  67. omentum
    an extension of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and connecting it with other ab organs
  68. liver
    organ in the upper right quadrant that produces bile, which is secreted into the duodenum during digestion
  69. gallbladder
    receptacle that stores and concentrates the bile produced in liver
  70. pancreas
    gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food
  71. biliary ducts
    ducts that convey bile; include the hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts
  72. hypocondriac regions
    upper lateral regions beneath the ribs
  73. epigastric region
    upper middle region below the sternum
  74. lumbar regions
    middler lateral regions
  75. umbilical region
    region of navel
  76. inguinal region
    lower lateral groin regions
  77. hypogastric region
    region below naval
  78. anorexia
    loss of appetite
  79. aphagia
    inability to swallow
  80. ascites
    accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
  81. buccal
    in the cheek
  82. diarrhea
    frequent loose or liquid stools
  83. constipation
    infrequent or incomplete bowel movements characterized by hardened or dry poop that's difficult to pass (constipo= to press together)
  84. dyspepsia
    indigestion
  85. dysphagia
    difficulty in swallowing
  86. eructation
    belch
  87. flatulence
    gas in the stomach or intestines (fart) (flatus = a blowing)
  88. halitosis
    bad breath
  89. hematemesis
    vomiting blood
  90. hepatomegaly
    enlargement of the liver
  91. hematochezia
    red blood in poop
  92. hyperbilirubinemia
    excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in blood
  93. icterus/jaundice
    yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in blood
  94. melena
    dark colored, tarry poop caused by old blood
  95. nausea
    feeling sick in stomach
  96. steatorrhea
    feces containing fat
  97. sublingual/hypoglossal
    under tongue
  98. ankyloglossia
    tongue-tie; defect of tongue characterized by short, thick frenulum
  99. cheilitis
    inflammation of lip
  100. esophageal varices
    swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus that are especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage
  101. esophagitis
    inflammation of esophagus
  102. gastritis 
    inflammation of stomach
  103. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    backflow of contents of stomach into esophagus, often resulting from abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter, causing burning pain in the esophagus
  104. gingivitis
    inflammation of gums
  105. glossitis
    inflammation of tongue
  106. parotiditis, parotitis
    inflammation of the parotid gland; also called mumps
  107. peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
    sore on the mucuous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the GI system exposed to gastric juices
  108. gastric ulcer
    ulcer on stomach
  109. duodenal ulcer
    ulcer on duodenum
  110. pyloric stenosis
    narrowed condition of the pylorus
  111. sialoadenitis
    inflammation of a salivary gland
  112. stomatitis
    inflammation of mouth
  113. anal fistula
    abnormal, tube-like passageway from anus that may connect with the rectum
  114. appendicitis 
    inflammation of the appendix
  115. colitis
    inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
  116. ulcerative colitis
    chronic inflammation of the colon with ulcerations
  117. colorectal polypos
    benign tissue growths on the mucuous membrane lining the large intestine and rectum; adenomatous types are precancerous and likely to develop into malignancy
  118. pediculated polyp
    projected on a stalk
  119. sessile polyp
    lying flat on the surface
  120. diverticulum
    abnormal side pocket in the GI tract; usually related to lack of diet fiber
  121. diverticulosis
    presence of diverticula in the GI tract, esp of colon
  122. diverticulitis
    inflammation of diverticula
  123. dysentery
    inflammatoin of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody poops; most often caused by bacteria or protozoa
  124. enteritis
    inflammation of the small intestine
  125. hemorrhoid
    swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in anal region
  126. hernia
    protrustion of a part from its normal location
  127. hiatal hernia
    protrusion of a part of the stomach upward through the opening in the diaphragm
  128. inguinal hernia
    protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
  129. incarcerated hernia
    hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction
  130. strangulated hernia
    hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous
  131. umbilical hernia
    protrustion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdonimal wall around the umbilicus (navel)
  132. ileitis
    inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
  133. intussusception
    prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part
  134. periotnitis 
    inflammation of the peritoneum
  135. proctitis
    inflammatoin of the rectum and anus
  136. volvulus
    twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction
  137. cholangitis
    inflammation of the bile ducts
  138. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  139. choledocholithiasis
    prescence of stones in the common bile duct
  140. cholelithiasis
    presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
  141. cirrhosis
    chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue; most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency
  142. hepatitis
    inflammation of liver
  143. hepatitis A
    inflammation of liver caused by hep A virus, usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food or water
  144. hepatitis B
    inflammation of liver by STD or exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids
  145. hepatitis C
    inflammation of liver by exposure to infected blood; rarely contracted sexually
  146. pancreatitis
    inflammation of pancreas
  147. biopsy (Bx)
    removal and microscopic study of tissue for pathological exam
  148. incisional bx
    removal of a portion of a lesion
  149. excisional bx
    removal of entire lesion
  150. needle biopsy
    percutaneous removal of tissue or fluid by needle
  151. endoscopy
    exam within body cavity with a flexible endoscope for dx or treatment; used in GI tract to detect abdnormalites
  152. colonoscopy
    exam of colon using colonoscope
  153. proctoscopy
    exam of rectum and anus using proctoscope
  154. sigmoidscopy
    examination fo the sigmoid colon with a rigid or flexible sigmoidoscope
  155. esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    exam of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with flexible endoscope for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes
  156. capsule endoscopy
    exam of the small intestine made by a tiny video camera placed in a capsule and then swallowed
  157. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
    endoscopic procedure including x-ray fluoroscopy to examine the ducts of the liver, gallbladder, biliary ducts, and pancreas; includes use of instruments to obtain tissue samples, extract stones, etc
  158. laparoscopy
    exam of abdominal cavity with a laparoscope for Dx purposes or for surgery
  159. upper GI series
    xray of esophagus, stomach, and duodenum after contrast medium; barium most common swallow
  160. barium swallow
    xray of esophagus only
  161. fluoroscopy
    xray imaging with a fluorescent screen to visualize structures in motion
  162. small bowel series
    xray exam of small intestine; generally done with upper GI
  163. lower GI series
    xray imaging of the colon after administratoin of an enema containing a contrast medium
  164. cholangiogram
    xray image of the bile ducts; often performed during surgery
  165. cholecystogram
    xray of gallbladder after ingesting iodine
  166. CT scan of Abdomen
    Cross sectional xray of abdomen to id a condition or anomaly within GI tract
  167. endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)
    imagine produced by a sonographic transducer within an endoscope to eval abnormalities of upper and lower GI tracts and adj structures
  168. stool culture and sensitivity (C&S)
    isoloation of a poops in a culture medium to id disease organisms
  169. stool occult blood study
    chemical test of poop to detect presence of blood
  170. abdominocentesis
    puncture of ab for aspiration of fluid
  171. abdominal paracentesis
    puncture of ab for aspiration of fluid in the periotoneal cavity
  172. anal fistulectomy
    excision of an anal fistula
  173. appendectomy 
    excision of a diseased appendix
  174. anastomosis
    union of two hollow vessels; a technique used in bowel surgery
  175. bariatric surgery
    treatment of morbid obesity by suregery to the stomach and/or intestines
  176. cheiloplasty
    repair of lip
  177. cholecystectomy
    excision of the gallbladder; common treatment for symptomatic gallbladder disease
  178. laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    excision of the gallbladder through a laparoscope
  179. colostomy
    creation of opening in colon through ab wall to create an abdominal anus, allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon
  180. esophagoplasty
    repair of the esophagus
  181. gastrectomy
    partial or complete removal of the stomach
  182. gastric resection
    partial removal and repair of stomach
  183. gastroenterostomy
    formation of an artifical opening between the stomach and small intestine; also repairs a perforated duodenal ulcer
  184. glossectomy
    excision of all or part of the tongue
  185. glossorraphy
    suture of the tongue
  186. hemorrhoidectomy
    excision of the hemorrhoids
  187. hepatic lobectomy
    excision of a lobe of the liver
  188. herniorrhaphy, hernioplasty
    repair of a hernia
  189. ileostomy
    surgical creation of an opening on the ab to which the end of the ileum is attached; for ileal discharges
  190. laparoscopic surgery
    abdominal surgery using a laparscope
  191. laparotomy
    incision into the abdomen
  192. pancreatectomy
    excision of the pancreas
  193. polypectomy
    excision of the polyps
  194. proctoplasty
    repair of the anus and rectum
  195. gastric lavage
    oral insertion of a tube into the stomach for exam and treatment (usually to remove blood clots from stomach or to monitor bleeding)
  196. nasogastric (NG) intubation
    insertion of a tube through nose and into stomach for various purposes such as to obtain gastric fluid specimen for analysis
  197. antacid
    drug that neutralizes stomach acid
  198. antiemetic
    drug that prevents or stops vomiting
  199. antispasmodic
    drug that decreases motility in the GI tracdt to arrest spasm or diarrhea
  200. cathartic
    laxative

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