Nutrition Exam III.txt

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Nutrition Exam III.txt
2012-11-15 09:20:08
Nutrition Exam III

Nutrition Exam III
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  1. what is the most sensitive indicator of Fe stores?
    serum ferritin(stores iron for daily use)
  2. Function of Iron (Fe)
    • Blood Formation
    • (Fe is part of hemoglobin  血红蛋白 which is part of the Red Blood Cell which is invloved in blood formation)
  3. What type of iron can be absorbed best?
    Heme Iron
  4. Heme Iron can be found in
    Red meat
  5. Meat is the most biologically available food source of
  6. enriched bread is a source of
    Iron (non-heme iron)

    enriched bread has little fat
  7. milk is a poor souce of
    Fe and Vitamin C
  8. Absorption of iron occurs in
    small intestine
  9. Iron must be ____________  to be absorbed?
    Ferrous Iron (亚铁)
  10. Absorption of iron
    must be ferrous iron to be absorbed

    change is accomplished in the presense of HCl or ascobic acid (Vitamin C)
  11. Factors affecting Iron Absorption
    Body's need for iron (large dose with ↓ need = ↓ absorption)
  12. Ferrous iron with __________ increase Fe absorption ?
    Vitamin C
  13. Too much fiber ( above ___ g / day ) ↓  _____________ ?
    nutrient ( Fe ) absorption
  14. Caffeine ( from coffee, tea, cola ) ↓ ________?
    • decreases Fe absorption
    • consume no more than 24 total ounces per day
  15. caffeine ↓ Fe absorption, we should consume no more than ____ ounces/ day?
    24 ounces/ day
  16. The meal with most iron absorption
    red meat, sources of vitamin C, no caffeine

    Sources of Vitamin C (starwberries and peppers)
  17. Woman in child bearing years have ↑______ so they are at ↑ risk of ________ ( _______  )?
    have ↑ Fe needs so they are at an increased risk of Fe deficientAnemia  )
  18. Fe deficient is _____ ?
    Anemia (贫血)
  19. Cook foods in iron pans/skillets to ↑
    to increase Fe intake
  20. Iron deficiency may result from
    • decreased Fe in the diet
    • blood loss
    • decreased absorption
  21. Symptoms of Anemia
    • ↓ red blood cells (红血球) 
    • fatigue (疲劳)
    • apathy (暮气--散漫)
  22. the iodization of NaCl (salt) has ↓
    the incidence of goiter (癭病-- 甲状腺肥大)
  23. Iodine Deficiency is what kind of disease
  24. Goiter (瘿病)
    swelling (肿胀) of the neck as a result of the enlargement of the thyroid gland (甲状腺肥大)
  25. decreased iodine can cause
    enlargement of the thyroid gland
  26. ↓ Zinc = ↓ ________
    ↓ taste acuity 味觉敏锐(hypogeusia)味觉衰退
  27. Hypogeusia 味觉衰退?
    Decreased taste acuity
  28. Zinc acts in ____________ ?
    mentalloenzymes 金属酶 (enzyme that contains zinc)
  29. Function of Zinc
    • reproduction 生殖
    • affects taste 影响味道
    • wound healing伤口愈合
    • growth 生长
    • zinc acts in metallogenzymes 作为金属酶
  30. Food Sources of Zinc 锌
    meat, seafood, and whole grains
  31. Function of Selenium 硒
    • functions as antioxidant along with
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • Beta carotene
  32. 4 antioxidants? 是
    Selenium, Vitamin C, Vitamin E , and beta carotene
  33. Function of Boron 硼
    prevents bone loss in post menopausal women 防止绝经后妇女的骨质流失
  34. Water soluble Vitamins includes 两个
    Vitamin B complex & Vitamin C
  35. Functions of Vitamin C
    • Collagen formation 胶原蛋白的形成
    • ↓ Cancer and Common Cold 抗癌症和缓解感冒
    • ↓Formation of Nitrosamines减少亚硝胺的形成
    • Facilitates the mineral (Fe) 促进矿物质(铁)
    • Antioxidant 抗氧化
  36. Collagen
    • a cement 水泥 like protein substance that binds cells together
    • part of connective tissue 结缔组织
  37. Vitamin C facilitates the mineral, ______, to be absorbed ?
  38. Vitamin C may alleviate the perceived severity of the symtoms of a cold
  39. Vitamin C helps to decrease the formation of nitrosamines亚硝胺
    nitrosamines - cancer causing agents found in cured meats 腊肉
  40. Cured meats (source of nitrosamines)  8 个
    Bacon, Ham, Hotdog, Polony, Pepperoni, Sausage, Scrapple, Salami
  41. Food Source of Vitamin C
    • Cabbage family vegetables (broccoli)
    • Cantaloupe
    • Citrus 柑橘
    • Kale 羽衣甘蓝
    • Peppers
    • Potatoes
    • Strawberries
    • Tomatoes
  42. Best Source of Ascorbic Acid (抗坏血酸) & Beta Carotene (β-胡萝卜素)
    Fruit & Vegetables
  43. Deficiency of Vitamin C is called _________ disease
    Scurvy (坏血病)
  44. Symtoms of Scurvy (坏血病)
    • Swollen Gums 牙龈红肿
    • Bruise easily 容易挫伤, 青肿
    • Reopening of old wounds (not enough collagen) 重开旧的伤痛(没有足够的胶原蛋白)
  45. Functions of Folate (Folic Acid, Folacin) 叶酸
    • 1. prevents and cures megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia (大细胞性贫血) normal nerve functioning. cells are immature  (细胞是未成熟的)
    • 2. involved in blood formation
  46. Blood Formation (4个)
    • Folate         (叶酸)
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  47. FAO suggestion for Folate per day
    400 ug/day
  48. Folate need ↑ when _________  ↑(during_____ & ______)
    • Blood volume ↑
    • during pregnancy & lactation
  49. Women in child bearing (生育) years need folate to
    prevent the childhood birth defect, spina bifida (脊柱裂)
  50. 1998, FDA mandates folate to be added to ______ products to ↓ the incidence of ____
    all grain products to decrease the incidence of  spina bifida
  51. Food Sources of Folate
    • Concentrated Sources:     source of Vitamin B (wheat germ小麦胚芽, liver肝, kidney肾, yeast酵母, and mushrooms蘑菇)
    • Significant Sources:    Fruits and Vegetables
  52. macrocytic anemia (megaloblastic) 大细胞性贫血
    form of anemia with large cells with normal nerve functioning (正常神经功能)
  53. pernicious anemia
    form of anemia with large cells but without normal nerve functioning (不正常神经功能)
  54. Cobalamin (钴胺素) is what vitamin ?
  55. Functions of Cobalamin (B12) 钴胺素
    prevents and treats pernicious anemia (恶性贫血) without normal nerve functioning. cells are immature (细胞是未成熟的)
  56. 4 Vitamins involved in blood formation ?
    • Folate         (叶酸)
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  57. Food Sources of B12
    • animal origin, with  meat    bing the best source
    • roast beef, chicken, steak, turkey
  58. Strict vegetarians (vegan) must supplement with
  59. Pyridoxine (吡哆醇) is what vitamin ?
  60. what 3 Vitamins are toxic when consumed in large amounts  (3个)
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
  61. Functions of Vitamin B6
    primarily in protein metabolism (involved in transamination and deamination)
  62. Requirements of Pyridoxine
    Amounts are directly correlated with _____ intake
  63. Fat Soluble Vitamins (4个)
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K
  64. Fat Soluble Vitamins are affected by
    • impaired fat digestion 脂肪消化受损
    • bile 胆汁
  65. Precursor (前兆) of Vitamin A
    Carotene (Yellow plant pigment) 胡萝卜素(黄色植物的色素)
  66. Functions of Vitamin A
    Vision - allows vision to dim light昏暗的灯光下 (Prevent Xeropthelmia - night-blindness 夜盲症)
  67. Carotene 胡萝卜素 stored in the
    • Fat Tissue 脂肪组织 & Adrenal Glands 肾上腺
    • maybe responsible for the yellowish tinge to the skin when grearter amounts are consumed and accessed or stored

    Vitamin A stored in liver
  68. Carotenoids are phytochemicals (植物化学物质) which ↓
    ↓ the risk of heart desease and cancers
  69. Deeper yellow, orange and green = ↑
    Vitamin A and Carotene
  70. Q: which has more Vitamin A?
    1. Corn vs. Sweet Potato
    2. Iceberg lettuce vs. Romaine lettuce
    • 1. Sweet Potato
    • 2. Romaine lettuce
  71. Deficiency of Vitamin A mostly found in
    pre-school children globally (blindness) due to lack of eating veggies
  72. Deficiency of Vitamin A causes
    • changes in the skin
    • Form of Dermatitis = Folliculitis 毛囊炎
    • changes in the eyes (cornea) 角膜
    • night blindness
  73. Form of Dermatitis = Folliculotitis 毛囊炎
  74. Examples of Deeper yellow, orange and green  (↑ Vit A & Carotene)
    • romaine lettuce
    • sweet potatoes
    • carrot
    • pumpkin
    • tomatoes
    • cantolope
    • papaya
    • mango
    • peach (canned provides greater)
  75. example of Bio-technology (bio-engineer food and genetic modified food)
    Golden rice
  76. Carotene converts to Vitamin A when
    Vitamin A is in low level
  77. Vitamin A would be toxic if consume too much
  78. Carotene is  a antioxidant not toxic
  79. Citrus provide no carotene
  80. precursor in the _________ is converted by ________ to make Vitamin D
    Skin                   UV Rays
  81. Vitamin D also known as the ______________
    Sunshine Vitamin
  82. Elderly are at an ↑ risk of Vitamin D deficiency due to ___________ & __________  (2个原因)
    • ↓ exposure to the sun
    • ↓ milk intake
  83. children who fail to have a good ____________ = rickckets
    calcium / phosphrous ration in bone
  84. Adult  Rickets is called ___________ ?
    Ostomalacia (软骨病)
  85. Calcium requirement for 19-24 year olds:
    1300 mg
  86. Vitamin E neutralizes free radicals preventing them (自由基) to increase cellular damage (细胞损伤)
  87. free radicals are formed by  (4)
    • 1. Breathing
    • 2. Pollution
    • 3. Somking
    • 4. UV exposure
  88. Vitamin E as antioxidant to protects oxidation of ___________ which decreases underarm odor (腋臭)
    Fatty Acid
  89. Food Sources of Vitamin E
    Vegetable Oils & Soybean Oils
  90. Deficiencies of Vitamin E shows up in premature infants and in people suffering from malabsorption (Cystic Fibrosis) 囊性纤维化
  91. Sources of Vitamin K
    green leafy vegetables AND from the synthesis of the vitamin by intestinal bacteria

    Spinach & Asparagus provide Vitamin K and Folate
  92. Newborns don't have the bacteria that synthesizes Vit K so___________
    supplement K are recommended