Infectious 2

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Author:
haip50
ID:
182734
Filename:
Infectious 2
Updated:
2012-11-13 22:04:34
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HIV opportunistic
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Description:
Infectious Diseases Exam 2
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  1. HIV Tests
    • HIV antibodies - 2-8 weeks, most by 3 months
    • CD4+ T cells
    • Viral loads
  2. Clinical HIV Stages
    • A - asymptomatic
    • B - thrush, vulvovaginal, shingles, leukoplakia
    • C - candidiasis of respiratory, all other opp infections
  3. HIV Stages
    • Primary - high viral replication, viral set point
    • Asymptomatic - T-cell levels remain high
    • Symptomatic - 200-499 CD4 T-cells
    • AIDS - < 200 T-cells
  4. HIV Treatment - Adverse Effects
    • Anemia
    • Pancreatitis
    • Hepatitis
    • Glucose intolerance/insulin resistance
    • Hyperlipidemia
    • Osteopenia and osteoporosis (HAART)
  5. Protease inhibitors
    • Inhibits viral protease enzyme crucial to maturation of HIV
    • Nausea
    • Diarrhea
    • Hypercholesteremia
    • Liver dysfunction
  6. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
    • Bind directly to reverse transcriptase enzyme
    • CNS symptoms
    • Rashes
    • Liver dysfunction
  7. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
    • Competitively inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase
    • Lactic acidosis
    • Liver damage
  8. Candidiasis (Thrush)
    • Agent - FungusCD4 - 200-500
    • Sx - white plaque on tongue, redness, soreness, cheilitis
    • Dx - microscope and culture
    • Tx - topical meds, antifungal meds (fluconazole)
  9. Cryptococcal
    • Agent - Fungus from bird droppings enters through lungs --> brain
    • CD4 - 50-100
    • Sx - fever, fatigue, HA, mood changes, SOB
    • Dx - culture, sputum, lung biopsy, CXR, CT scan, antigen test
    • Tx - Ampho B, antifungal
  10. Cryptosporidiosis
    • Agent - parasite in water
    • CD4 - 50-100
    • Sx - watery diarrhea, abd cramps, dehydration, vomiting
    • Dx - stool specimens
    • Tx - fluid intake, anti-diarrheal med, improve immune system
  11. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    • Agent - common virus spread through body fluids
    • CD4 - 50-100
    • Sx - retinitis, sore throat, swollen glands, fever
    • Dx - blood test
    • Tx - antiviral (ganciclovir)
  12. Histoplasmosis
    • Agent - Fungus from environment, droppings
    • CD4 - 100-200
    • Sx - asymptomatic or pneumonia-like
    • Dx - tissue samples
    • Tx - antifungal meds (itraconazole)
  13. Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC)
    • Agent - bacteria in environment infecting lungs, intestines, bloodstream
    • CD4 - < 50
    • Sx - fever, night sweats, abd pain, diarrhea
    • Dx - tissue samples
    • Tx - antibiotics (clarithro/azithromycin, rifabutin)
  14. Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia (PCP)
    • Agent - fungus infecting lungs that was once most common death in AIDS
    • CD4 - 100-200
    • Sx - fever, SOB, fatigue
    • Dx - sputum, biopsy
    • Tx - antibiotics (TMP-SMX)
  15. Toxoplasmosis
    • Agent - parasite that from animals that attacks brain
    • CD4 - 50-100
    • Sx - flu-like symptoms, eye pain, can remain inactivated in body
    • Dx - CT, MRI, blood test, CSF biopsy
    • Tx - aggressive therapy (pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, folinic acid)
  16. Tuberculosis
    • Agent - bacteria affecting lungs, brain, kidneys, spine spread through air
    • Sx - coughing, night sweats, fever, weight loss
    • Dx - CXR, blood test
    • Tx - isoniazid and rifampin

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