ch. 50 oxygenation

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ch. 50 oxygenation
2012-11-10 10:16:02

exam 4
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  1. Respiration
    process of gas exchange between person and environment
  2. 4 components of respiration
    • 1. ventilation
    • 2. alveolar-capillary gas exchange
    • 3. transport of O2 and CO2 between tissues and lungs
    • 4. movement of O2 and CO2 between systemic capillaries and tissues
  3. upper respiratory system
    mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx
  4. lower respiratory system
    • trachea
    • lungs: bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pulmonary capillary network, pleural membranes
  5. intrapleural
    pressure in the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs
  6. intrapulmonary
    presssure within the lung
  7. tidal volume
    500 mL of air inhailed and exhaled with each breath
  8. accessory muscles of respiration
    • anterior nech muscles
    • intercostal muscles
    • abdominal muscles
  9. lun compliance
    • stretchability of lung tissue
    • decreases with ae
  10. atelectasis
    collapse of a portion of a lung
  11. lung recoil
    • continual tendency of the lung to collapse away from the chest wall
    • necessary for normal exhalation
  12. surfactant
    • lipoprotein
    • reduces surfact tension in lung
    • without it lung expansion is difficult
  13. diffusion
    movement of gases from area of greater pressure to an area of lower pressure
  14. partial pressure
    pressure exerted by each gas in mixure
  15. factors affecting O2 transport from lung to tissues
    • cardiac output
    • exercise
    • # of erythrocytes and blood hematocrit
  16. transport of CO2 from cells to lung
    • 65% carried in RBC's as bicarbonate
    • 30% transported with hemoglobin as carbhemoglobin
    • 5% transported in plasma as carbonic acid
  17. factors affecting respiratory function
    • age
    • environment
    • lifestyle
    • health status
    • stress
    • meds
  18. meds that affect respiration
    • benzodiazepine sedative hypnotic
    • antianxiety
    • barbiturates
    • narcotics (morphine, demerol)
  19. hypoventalation
    • inadequate alveolar ventilation
    • slow or shallow breathing
    • leads to increase levels of CO2
    • leads to decrease levels of O2
  20. hyperventalation
    • more CO2 eliminated than is produced
    • rate and depth of respirations decrease
    • increased movement of air into and out of lungs
  21. Kussmaul's breathing
    • hyperventalation with metabolic acidosis
    • body attempts to compensate for increase metabolic acid by blowing off acid in CO2 form
  22. Cheyne strokes respirations
    • very deep to very shallow with periods of apnea
    • rhythmic waxing/waning of respirations
    • caused by chronic diseases, increased intracranial pressure, drug overdose
  23. S