Bergey's Manual Vol 2

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Bergey's Manual Vol 2
2012-11-11 00:50:01

Micro Exam 2: Proteobacteria
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    • author "Shughesi "
    • tags "Mirco Exam 2"
    • description "The Proteobacteria"
    • fileName "Bergey's Manual Vol 2 "
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0

    • Phylum Proteobacteria
    • Known as the Purple bacteria
    • - Gram Negative.
    • - Large and extremely complex group that over 1300 species in over 400 genera.
    • - diverse in morphology, physiology, and lifestyle.
    • - phototrophy, heterotrophy, and chemolithotrophy.
    • - divided into 5 classes based on rRNA data.
  1. Class Alphaproteobacteria
    • The first class of Phylum Proteobacteria.
    • Contains Orders Rhodospirillum, Rickettsiales, and Rhizobiales.
  2. Genus Rhodospirillum
    • In Order Rhodospirillum
    • Ex. of the purple nonsulfur bacteria.
    • Normally grow aerobically as photoorganoheterotrophs.
    • Or grow aerobically as chemoorganoheterotrophs. 
    • Most prevalent in the mud and water of lakes and ponds with abundant organic matter
  3. Order Rickettsiales
    • Part of Class I Alphaproteobacteria
    • Obligate parasites
    • Assoicated with the mononuclear phagocyte system and vascular endothelial cells
    • May cause disease in humans or in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. 
    • Mutualistic relationships b/t some insects and some rickettsias in which rickettsias provides factors essentials for the insects growth and reproduction.
    • Cells are rod shape or coccoid. 
    • Often pleomorphic. 
  4. Genus Rickettsia
    • Part of order Rickettsiales in Class Alphaproteobacteria
    • Growth occurs in the cytoplasm.
    • Sometimes in the nucleus of certain vertebrate and arthropod cells
  5. Genus Ehrlichia
    • In Order Rickettsiales in Class Alphaproteobacteria
    • Transmitted by tick vectors
    • 1986: 1st case of human monocytic erhlichiosis (HME) in the Western Hemisphere.
    • 1994: new form called human granlocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE).
    • Its symptoms similar to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever except there is no rash with erhlichiosis.
    • Symptoms also include leucopenia and thrombocytopenia.
  6. Genus Rhizobium
    • Class Alphaproteobacteria Order Rhiobiales
    • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation
    • Bacteria induce the formation of nodules on the roots of leguminous plants and convert N2 gas to N3.
  7. Genus Agrobacterium
    • Class Alphaproteobacteria Order Rhizobiales
    • Do not fix N2
    • Plant pathogens that cause tumors on the crown, roots, and stems of dicots.
    • Tumor production is determined by the presence of a plasmid: Tumor inducing plasmid (TIP).
    • May be modified with the insertion of desirable genes for use in genetic engineering of plants.
  8. Genus Bartonella
    • Class Alphoproteobacteria Order Rhizobiales
    • Has two species: 
    • Bartonella quintana 
    •   Causes trench fever or shinbone fever.
    •   Symptoms are mild, primarily fever associated with pains in the shins; louse borne.
    •   Reappeared in homeless populations and causing endocarditis.
    •   Can be cultivated in vitro on a cell0free media (blood agar), in vivo it grows epicellularly. 

    Bartonella henselae- cat scratch disease: malaise, fever, lymphadenopathy.
  9. Genus Brucella
    • Class Alphoproteobacteria Order Rhizobiales
    • Very short rods, nonmotile, causative agent of brucellosis (Malta fever). 
    • Disease found in cattle, goats, swine, sheep, and bison.
    • Zoonosis, less than 200 human causes a year in the U.S. 
    • Causes undulating fever, enlarged spleen, and lymph nodes, muscle aches, and death by endocarditis. 
    • Potential biological warfare agent by aerosol route. 
    • From consumption of unpasterized milk, abattoir (slaughterhouse), and veterinary work. 
  10. Class II Betaproteobacteria
    Has Genus Burkholderia, Bordetella, and Neisseria. 
  11. Genus Burkholderia
    • Class II Betaproteobacteria
    • Has two species: 
    • Burkholderia cepacia: causes sour skind of onion and causes nosocomial infections. 
    • A problem of cystic fibrosis. 

    Buckholderia solanacearum: cause of bacterial Wilt of Tomatoes.
  12. Genus Bordetella
    • Class II Betaproteobacteria
    • Bordelleta  pertussis: 
    • short rods. 
    • Found only in the repiratory tract of humans 
    • Cause of whooping cough or pertussis that is primarily a childhood disease (500,000 die each year.)
    • Less thatn 10 in the U.S. 
    • Results in secretion of thick mucous in the upper repiratory tract and prolonged coughing sieges of 5 to 15 rapidly consecutive coughs followed by a whoop. 
    • Prevention is with the DTP or DTaP vaccine that is given at 2, 4, 6, and 18 months and repeated at 4 or 5 years.
  13. Genus Neisseria
    • Class II Betaprobacteria Order Neisseriales
    • cocci occuring singley by more often in pairs with adjacent sides flattened.
    • Inhabitants of mucous membraes of mammals
    • Two species highly pathogenic for humans: Neisseria gonorrheae and Neisseria meningitidis. 
  14. Class III Gammaproteobacteria
    • Consitutes the largest subgroup of proteobacteria. 
    • Contains Genus:  
    • Chromatium,
    • Francisella,
    • Legionella,
    • Coxiella,
    • Pseudomonas,
    • Acinetobacter, 
    • Vibrio,
    • Photobacterium
    • Salmonella,
    • Erwinia,
    • Yersinia, and
    • Haemophilus
  15. Genus Chromatium
    • Class III Gammaproteobacteria Order Chromatiales
    • Rod shaped or ovoid cells with rounded ends
    • Motile by polar flagella
    • Contain internal vesicular photosynthetic members.
  16. Genus Francisella
    • Class III Gammaproteobacteria Order Thiotrichales
    • Contains species: Francsiella tularensis 
    • Small rods and zoonosis
    • Endemic in the U.S. in wild animals such as rabbits, squirrels, deer, and birds. 
    • Cause of rabbit fever or tularemia. 
    • Transmitted to humans by bites of ticks and deer flies. 
    • Hunters who skin infected rabbits can acquire the organism.
    • Symptoms can include high fever of 104 - 106F, enlarged lymph nodes (buboes), and an unlcer may form at the site of entry. 
    • Possible bioterrorism agent. 
  17. Genus Legionella
    • Class Gammaproteobacteria Order Legionellales
    • Species: Legionella pneumophila
    • Cause of Legionnaires' Disease named following an outbreak of veterans who attended an American Legion convention in July 1976 in Philly. 
    • Small Gram Negative bacteria. 
    • Grows in H2O associated with amaebas on an interacellular parasite. 
    • Found in the A/C system, shower heads, and misters. 
    • Does not transmit to human to human. 
  18. Genus Coxiella
    • Gamma Betaproteobacteria Order Legionellales
    • Coxiella burnetii
    • Cause of Query or Q fever which is a type of pneumonia. 
    • Grows in the phagolysosmones of the host cell. 
    • High resistance to chemical agents & elevated temperatures.
    • Can survive 143F for 30 mins. 
    • Resistance is due to endospore-like stucture in the large cell variant. 
    • WW distribution of invertebrate/ vertebrate host: cattle, sheep, and goats. 
    • Infection in humans happen by aerosol routes: inhaling infectious dust from tick fees deposited on the hides of animals and from the dried placenta of animals giving birth. Also from drinking unpasteurized milk. 
    • Biological warfare agent
  19. Genus Pseudmonas
    • Gammaproteobacteria Order Pseudomonadaceae
    • Respiratory type of metabolism (O2 is the final electron acceptor). 
    • Straight or slightly curved rods
    • Motlie by polar flagella
    • Catalase positive and usually oxidase positive
    • Distributed in soil and water. 
    • Some pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants. 
  20. Genus Acinetobacter
    • Gammaproteobacteria Order Pseudomonadaceae
    • group of bacteria found in soil and water. 
    • Found on the skin of healthy people especially healthcare personnel. 
  21. Genus Vibrio
    • Vibrio cholerae
    • Gammaproteobacteria
    • Cause of cholera
    • Spread in drinking water (Remember John Snow) 
    • Profuse diarrhea (rice water stools)
    • Patients can lose 10 to 15% body weight in < one day. 
    • Death from kidney failure or low blood volume which are consequences of fluid loss.
  22. Genus Photobacterium
    • Gammaproteobacteria
    • Distinguished by bioluminescence
    • Electrons bypass the cytochromes of the electron transport chain and instead of ATP, energy is released as light. 
    • Colonized in the organs of deep sea fish. 

    FMNH2 + O2 RCHO -luciferase--> FMN + H2O + RCOOH + light.
  23. Genus Escherichia
    • Gammaproteobacteria Order Enterobaceriales
    • E. Coli- occurs in the lower partsof the normal flora. 
    • Some strains cause gastroenteritis, others cause UTI. 
    • CO2 and H2 produced by glucose fermenation
    • usually nonpathogenic. 
    • Synthesizes vitamin K.
    • Hemolytic Uermic Syndrome outbreak in 1993 from undercooked hamburgers. 73,000 cases. 
  24. Genus Shigella
    • Gammaproteobacteria Order Enterobaceriales
    • Ferment sugars without gas production. 
    • All stains and species are pathogenic 
    • Cause of bacillary dysentery or shigellosis. 
    • The organism is spread by contaminated food, fingers, flies, feces, fomites and water. 
    • Abrupt onset of diarrhea, often with blood and pus in stools. 
    • Children are the most susceptible and outbreaks occur in daycare centers. 
  25. Genus Salmonella 
    • Gammaproteobacteria Order Enterobaceriales
    • All strains are pathogenic for humans. 
    • Causing typhiod fever, gastroenteritis and septicemia. 
    • Many stains also infect a variety of animals. 
  26. Salmonella typhi
    • Cause typhiod fever. 
    • Only occurs in humans
    • Characterized by high fever and speticemia
    • Some individuals following infection become chronic carriers and harbor the bacter in the gall bladder
    • Typhiod Mary
  27. Genus Erwinia
    • Gammaproteobacteria Order Enterobaceriales
    • Mainly associated with plants esp plant pathogens.
    • Erwinia amylovora: cause of fireblight.
    • Erwinia caratovora: cause of soft rot of fruits and vegetables.
    • Erwinia tracheiphila: cause of bacterial wilt of cucurbitaceae. 
  28. Genus Yersinia
    • Yersinia pestis: cause of plague or bubonic plague. 
    • organism is normally maintained within populations of wild rodents and transmitted by fleas.
    • The microbe is able to mulitply within the gut of flea. 
    • Xenopsylla cheopsis: classic vector in urban rat borne epidemics. 
    • Responsible for the Black Death in 1348. 
    • Mortality in untreated human cases is 50-60%
    • Pneumonic plague occurs when aerosols from a coughing patient are inhaled and has a mortality rate apporaching 100%
    • Potential bioterrorism agent.
  29. Genus Haemophilus
    • Gammaproteobacteria Order Pasteurellales
    • Parasites of the mucous membranes of humans and animals
    • Require preformed growth factors present in blood such as heme &/or NAD. 
    • Some are pathogenic for humans
    • Haemophilus influenzae type B: 
    • Leading cause of meningitis in infants and children WW
    • 1/3 die and 1/3 to 1/2 have serious mental retardation. 
    • Hib vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months in the U.S. have reduced incidence of the disease. 
  30. Genus Bdellovibro
    • Class VI Deltaproteobacteria Order Bdellovibrionales
    • Gram Negative 
    • Aerobic curved rods with polar flagella
    • Predaceous on other gram negative bacteria. 
    • Attaches to host bacterium and penetrates through both the out membrane and peptidoglycan layer cell well. 
    • Grows within the periplasmic space. 
  31. Genus Campylobacter 
    • Class V Epsilonproteobacteria Order Campylobacterales
    • Microaerophilic parasites. 
    • Found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract and oral cavity of humans and animals. 
    • Campylobacter jejuni: 
    • Most common cause of diarrhea in the U.S.
    • Est. 2 million infections each year and prevalent in poultry. 
  32. Genus Helicobacter
    • Class V Epsilonproteobacteria Order Camplyobacterales
    • Microaerophilies parasites
    • Found in the upper intestines, and stomachs of humans, dogs, cates, and other mammals. 
    • Helicobacter pylori:
    • Found by Barry Marshall
    • Causal agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastritis. 
    • Also linked to gastric carcinoma. 
    • Designated as a class I carcinogen. 
    • Produce enzyme urease
    • H2N-C-NH2 + H2O -urease---> 2NH3 + CO2

    Double bond O to the first carbon.