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2012-11-12 19:13:56
Chapter 13 14

Exam 4
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  1. Falsely held beliefs in spite of contradictory evidence
  2. False/distorted perception
    usually auditory or visual
  3. What are the characteristics of paranoid type of schizophrenia?
    • presence of halluncinations, delusions, or both.
    • no cognitive impairment, disorganized behavior, or negative symptoms
    • frequent auditory hallucinations
  4. What are the characteristics of catatonic type of schizophrenia?
    • Distrubed movement or actions
    • Waxy flexibility-person can be molded to do something and they will stay in that position
  5. What are the characteristics of disorganized type of schizophrenia?
    • disorganized thoughts, behavior, and speech
    • flat or inappropriate emotional expressions
  6. What are the characteristics of undifferentiated schizophrenia?
    mixture of positive and negative symptoms
  7. What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
    • Flat affect (no/little emotion)
    • Avolotion (loss of motivation/interest)
    • Alogia (loss of speech)
  8. What are the positve symptoms of schizophrenia?
    • Delusions
    • hallucinations
    • disorganized thoughts, speech, and behavior
  9. What is abnormal behavior?
    • Behavior that is maladaptive and harmful (danger to self and others)
    • significant impairment in social or occupational functioning
    • difficulty completing daily tasks
    • distress
    • deviance
  10. How common are psychological disorders?
    • about 50% experience symptoms at least once in their life
    • 25% in the past year
  11. What is DSM-IV-TR?
    • diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
    • Book published by the American psychiatric association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders
  12. What are examples of biological dimension?
    Genetics, brain anatomy, nervous system, age, neurotransmitters
  13. What are examples of psychological dimension?
    personality, coping, early experiences, values, thought, cognitive processes
  14. What are examples of social dimension?
    • (Relationships)
    • family
    • friends
    • support systems
  15. WHat are examples of sociocultural dimension?
    Race, religion, gender, sexual orientation
  16. An unpleaseant emtional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry
  17. A category of mental disorders in which significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emtions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning
    Mood Disorder
  18. Personal awareness of mental activities, internal sensations, and the external environment.
  19. Fluctuations in bilogical processes over course of day
    Circadian rhythms
  20. What are some examples of circadian rhythms?
    • peak mental alertness and memory 9am and 9pm
    • Lowest body temp-about 97 around 4 am
    • peak hearing visual, taste, and smell sensitivity-3am 6pm
  21. What is REM sleep and how long does it last?
    • Fast, active, brain waves accompanied by rapid eye movements
    • The first REM episode tends to be brief, about 5-15 minutes. From the beginning of stage 1 NREM sleep through the completion of the first episode of REM sleep, about 90 minutes have elapsed.
  22. NREM sleep and its stages and length
    • quiet, typically dreamless sleep in which REM are absent
    • divided into 4 stages
    • Stage 1-lasts only a few minutes-transitional stage
    • Stage 2-true sleep-lasts 15-20 minutes
    • Stage 3 and 4-slow-wave sleep-lasts 20-40 minutes
  23. Why is sleep important?
    • Experience disruptions in mood, mental abilities, reaction time, perceptual skills, and complex motor skills
    • sleep restriction produces impairments:¬† concentration, vigilance, reaction time, memory skills
  24. Vague, bland, thoughtlike ruminations about real-life events that typically occur during NREM sleep
    • Sleep thinking
    • also called sleep mentation
  25. An unfolding sequence of thoughts, perceptions, and emotions that typically occurs during REM sleep and is experienced as a series of real-life events
  26. What is the relationship between sleep and memory formation?
    • strenghtens new memories and in integrating new memories with existing memories
    • episodic memories: memories of personally experienced events
    • procedural memories-learngin a new skill or task until it can be performed automatically
  27. psychoanalysis
    • Founder: freud
    • source of problems: unconscious drives and impulses. internal conflicts stemming from parent-child relationships
    • goal: insight to source of problem, recover repressed memories of conflicts, replace defense mechanisms with more adaptive ones
  28. Client-centered therapy
    • founder: Rogers
    • source of problem: conditional acceptance; grew up with conditions of worth¬†
    • goals: assist individual recongnize his/her potential; increase self awareness and achieve self actualization
  29. Behavior Therapy
    • founder: skinner, mary cover jones
    • source of problems: maladaptive behaviors and patterns are learned
    • goals: teach new skills and new funtional behavior patterns
  30. Cognitive therapy
    • founder: Beck
    • source of problems: faulty expectations and irrational beliefs
    • goals: teach new ways of thinking
  31. Rational-Emotive Therapy
    • founder: Ellis
    • source of problems: distorted thinking and negative cognitive bias
    • Goals: change unrealisitic beliefs and teach new ways osf perceiving situations
  32. Biomedical Therapy
    • founder: medical model
    • source of problems faulty physiological processes
    • goals: treat physiological processes
  33. What factors influence the effectiveness of therapy?
    • Therapist characterisitics
    • Client characteristics
    • client/therapist relationship
  34. How effective is therapy?
    • just as effective as medication
    • different therapies work for different disorders
    • little to no difference in effectiveness of therapies