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Falsely held beliefs in spite of contradictory evidence
usually auditory or visual
What are the characteristics of paranoid type of schizophrenia?
- presence of halluncinations, delusions, or both.
- no cognitive impairment, disorganized behavior, or negative symptoms
- frequent auditory hallucinations
What are the characteristics of catatonic type of schizophrenia?
- Distrubed movement or actions
- Waxy flexibility-person can be molded to do something and they will stay in that position
What are the characteristics of disorganized type of schizophrenia?
- disorganized thoughts, behavior, and speech
- flat or inappropriate emotional expressions
What are the characteristics of undifferentiated schizophrenia?
mixture of positive and negative symptoms
What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
- Flat affect (no/little emotion)
- Avolotion (loss of motivation/interest)
- Alogia (loss of speech)
What are the positve symptoms of schizophrenia?
- disorganized thoughts, speech, and behavior
What is abnormal behavior?
- Behavior that is maladaptive and harmful (danger to self and others)
- significant impairment in social or occupational functioning
- difficulty completing daily tasks
How common are psychological disorders?
- about 50% experience symptoms at least once in their life
- 25% in the past year
What is DSM-IV-TR?
- diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
- Book published by the American psychiatric association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders
What are examples of biological dimension?
Genetics, brain anatomy, nervous system, age, neurotransmitters
What are examples of psychological dimension?
personality, coping, early experiences, values, thought, cognitive processes
What are examples of social dimension?
- support systems
WHat are examples of sociocultural dimension?
Race, religion, gender, sexual orientation
An unpleaseant emtional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry
A category of mental disorders in which significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emtions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning
Personal awareness of mental activities, internal sensations, and the external environment.
Fluctuations in bilogical processes over course of day
What are some examples of circadian rhythms?
- peak mental alertness and memory 9am and 9pm
- Lowest body temp-about 97 around 4 am
- peak hearing visual, taste, and smell sensitivity-3am 6pm
What is REM sleep and how long does it last?
- Fast, active, brain waves accompanied by rapid eye movements
- The first REM episode tends to be brief, about 5-15 minutes. From the beginning of stage 1 NREM sleep through the completion of the first episode of REM sleep, about 90 minutes have elapsed.
NREM sleep and its stages and length
- quiet, typically dreamless sleep in which REM are absent
- divided into 4 stages
- Stage 1-lasts only a few minutes-transitional stage
- Stage 2-true sleep-lasts 15-20 minutes
- Stage 3 and 4-slow-wave sleep-lasts 20-40 minutes
Why is sleep important?
- Experience disruptions in mood, mental abilities, reaction time, perceptual skills, and complex motor skills
- sleep restriction produces impairments: concentration, vigilance, reaction time, memory skills
Vague, bland, thoughtlike ruminations about real-life events that typically occur during NREM sleep
- Sleep thinking
- also called sleep mentation
An unfolding sequence of thoughts, perceptions, and emotions that typically occurs during REM sleep and is experienced as a series of real-life events
What is the relationship between sleep and memory formation?
- strenghtens new memories and in integrating new memories with existing memories
- episodic memories: memories of personally experienced events
- procedural memories-learngin a new skill or task until it can be performed automatically
- Founder: freud
- source of problems: unconscious drives and impulses. internal conflicts stemming from parent-child relationships
- goal: insight to source of problem, recover repressed memories of conflicts, replace defense mechanisms with more adaptive ones
- founder: Rogers
- source of problem: conditional acceptance; grew up with conditions of worth
- goals: assist individual recongnize his/her potential; increase self awareness and achieve self actualization
- founder: skinner, mary cover jones
- source of problems: maladaptive behaviors and patterns are learned
- goals: teach new skills and new funtional behavior patterns
- founder: Beck
- source of problems: faulty expectations and irrational beliefs
- goals: teach new ways of thinking
- founder: Ellis
- source of problems: distorted thinking and negative cognitive bias
- Goals: change unrealisitic beliefs and teach new ways osf perceiving situations
- founder: medical model
- source of problems faulty physiological processes
- goals: treat physiological processes
What factors influence the effectiveness of therapy?
- Therapist characterisitics
- Client characteristics
- client/therapist relationship
How effective is therapy?
- just as effective as medication
- different therapies work for different disorders
- little to no difference in effectiveness of therapies