Sociology SY2

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Sociology SY2
2012-11-10 16:46:37

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  1. Capitalist Relations of Production
    How members of the workforce are organised in relation to each other under capitalism. (In capitalist industrial societies, this is usually hierarchical, with a few at the top making all the decisions and giving orders, while the majority do what they are told)
  2. Correspondence Therory
    Bowles and Gintis's theory that various aspects of economic production work have corresponging features in the educational system
  3. Cultural Capital
    Cultural skills, such as knowing how to behave, speak and learn, passed on by middle-class parents to their children
  4. Equality of Opportunity
    Every person having the same chances
  5. Hidden Curriculum
    The informal learning of particular values and attitudes in schools
  6. Ideology
    A set of interconnected ideas that serve the interests of a particualr group
  7. Ideological Control
    Getting people to behave in a desired way by convincing them that it is in their interests to behave in that way
  8. Individualism
    The belief that individuals are far more important than social groups
  9. Liberals
    Open-minded people who believe in personal freedom, democracy (the involvement of everyone in decision-making) and the rights of others
  10. Meritocracy
    System where people are rewarded on the basis of ability and talent
  11. Myth of Meritocracy
    The view that it is not true that the education system  rewards pupils based on merit i.e. intelligence and ability, usually via examinations and qualifications
  12. Particularistic Standards
    Judgements based on the exculsive views of a particular group
  13. Schooling
    The process of compulsory education
  14. Secondary Education
    Education between the ages of 11 and 16
  15. Specialist schools
    Schools that have a particular focus within their curriculum and links to specialist areas of work e.g. arts and media, business, languages, healthcare and medicine. They can select 10% of their intake on the basis of ability
  16. State Education
    Education provided by local and central governments
  17. Universalistic Standards
    Judgements based upon univerally agreed principles
  18. Compensatory Education
    Making more resources available to schools in poorer areas in order to compensate for deprivation
  19. Cultural Disadvantage
    'Cultural deprivation' theory suggests that some pupils' backgrounds are in some way deficient or inferior, 'cultural difference' explanations suggest that pupils' backgrounds are simply different, and that the mismatch with the culture of school places them at a disadvantage
  20. Differential Educational Attainment
    The extent to which educational achievement differs between social groups
  21. Educational Maintencace Allowance (EMA)
    A means-tested sum of up to £30 per week given to post-16 students to support them in meeting the daily costs of coming to school
  22. Material Deprivation
    Lack of money leading to disadvantages such as an unhealthy diet and unsatisfacory housing
  23. Positive Discrimination
    Treating certain groups more favourably than others, usually to help overcome disadvantages
  24. Sulf-fulfilling Prophecy
    A prediction that causes the outcome it predicts
  25. Tripartite System
    System that offered three types of school (grammar, secondary technical and secondary modern), with students allocated according to abilities and the results of the 11+ test