Rad Test VI
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What is vertical angulation for maxillary topographical occlusal film?
- + 60 - 65
- Pt. upright
- insert film with longest demension vertically
What is vertical angulation for cross-sectional occlusal film?
- + 75
- Pt. upright
- insert horizontally
What is vertical angulation for mandibular topographical occlusal film?
- - 55
- Pt. head tilted back
What is vertical angulation for mandibular cross-sectional occlusal film?
What is occlusal film for an adult?
Which occlusal film is used like a periapical?
Which occlusal film is used to locate a structure buccally or lingually?
What type of safelight can be used with the pan film?
either dark or red
What is lateral jaw film used for?
posterior region of the mandible (areas too large to show up on PA)
What is the Water's view used for?
view maxillary sinus
What is TMJ film used for?
to examine TMJ
What is cephalometric film used for?
to evaluate facial growth & development
What film shows the skull as if u were looking directly at the patient?
Which film requires a fixed head position?
Which survey requires 2 films, 1 with the mouth open & 1 with mouth closed?
Intesifying screens are used to:
intiensify radiation thus decreasing exposure time
Using Clark's rule if the object moves int he same direction as the tube shifts then its located? if it moves in opposite direction?
What is the main advatage of using pan film? disadvantage?
- advantage- decrease in exposure time, easy, can see entire dentition & TMJ, good for pt. education
- disadvantage- lack of detail, overlapping anteriors, ghost images superimposed over structures
Know which films are intraoral & extraoral...
- intraoral-(non-screen/direct/xrays) pa, bitewings, occlusal(#4)
- extraoral-(screen/indirect/light) pan
The panoramic film is based on the principle of?
Define focal trough..
zone of sharpness (bite tab)
What needs to be removed bedore taking a pan?
any metal & removable appliances
What solutions can pans be processed in?
What screen emits blue light?
calcium tungstate crystals
What screen emits a green light?
rare earth (Lanex) crystals
What screen uses less radiation exposure?
What do u need to remember when matching intensifying screens to film?
match screen w/ film that is sensitive to the light they omit
What would u need to do if the patient was edentulous to keep arches seperate?
use cotton roll
What is pan film..direct or indirect?
Define direct exposure film & indirect exposure film?
- direct exposure film-intraoral films, xrays produce image(occlusals, pa, bws)
- indirect exposure film-extraoral film, radiation hits screens & causes it to fluorescence & emit light which exposes the film(pan)
Define secondary radiation..
radiation formed by the interaction of xrays & matter
Pan error-chin tipped up too much? down too much?
- chin up-frown appearance & apices of max. teeth cut out
- chin down-exaggerated smile
Pan error- head position too far forward(closer to film)? head position too far behind(farther from film)
- head too far forward(closer to film)-anterior teeth blurred & narrow
- head too far behind(farther from film)-anterior teeth blurred & magnifyed
Pan error-head rotated?
one side is small other is magnifyed
Pan error-patient slouched?
ghost image of spine superimposed over chin(anterior white out)
Pan error-failure to remove metallic items?
leaves ghost image on opposite side(usually larger & higher)
Pan error-lead apron appearance?
clear area(no teeth seen thru)
Pan error-tongue not pressed to palate?
radiolucent image over maxillary apices
Do u use a thyroid collar for pan?
Definition & significance for ionizing radiation?
when atom gains or loses an electron; proces by which ionizing radiation causes biological damage
Distance you should be from source of radiation?
6ft. away & 90-136 degrees to the side of the beam
Know which cells are radioresistant & radiosensitive?
- Respiratory>Lymphatic>Circulatory>Endocrine> Respiratory>Digestive>Nervous
- (Real love constitutes entire respect, dont namecall)
boiling off of electrons into a cloud @ filament wire
Source of xrays? source of electrons?
- xrays-target(anode)focal spot
- electrons-filament wire
- collimator-protective device, restricts size of beam to 2.75in(so volume of tissue exposed),made of lead
- filter-protective devive from unecessary radiation by filtering out weak, less penetrating xrays from beam that would otherwise be absorbed by patients face, made of aluminum
Know which structures are radiolucent & radiopague?
- radiolucent-(blacker)canal, foramen, fossa, meatus, sinus, space(pdl), suture
- radiopague-(whiter)bone, border(wall), process, ridge, spine, tubercles, tuberosity
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