Bergey's Vol 4

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Bergey's Vol 4
2012-11-11 02:12:30

High G + C Gram Positive Bacteria
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  1. Class Actinobacteria
    Genus Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Propionibacterium, and Streptomyces
  2. Genus Actinomyces
    • Class Actinobacteria
    • Straight or slightly curved rods. 
    • Filaments with varying degrees of branching may predominate in certain species. 
    • No aerial filaments. 
    • Perferentially anaerobic. 
    • Make up part of the microbial flora of the oral cavity and female genital tract. 
    • May be pathogenic to humans and animals.
    • Disease caused by Actinomyces is called actinomycosis. 
    • Is a chronic granulomatous disease characterized by abscess formation. 
    • Periodontal desease
  3. Genus Micrococcus
    • Class Actinobacteria
    • Aerobic 
    • Catalase positive cocci that occur mainly in pairs, tetrads or irregular clusters 
    • Usually nonmotile 
    • Most produce carotenoid pigments. 
    • Primary natural habitats is mammalian skin. 
    • Nonpathogenic. 
  4. Genus Arthrobacter
    • Class Actinobacteria
    • Aerobic
    • Catalase positive
    • Isolated most commonly from soil, saprophytic
    • Characterized by an unusual rod coccus cycle. 
    • Cells in the logs phase are irregularly sharped rods.
    • Whereas cells in the statinonary phase are distinctly coccoid. 
  5. Genus Corynebacterium
    • Straight to slightly curved rods that exhibits swelling.
    • Clubs shapes or other deviations from a uniform rod shape. 
    • Generally facultatively anaerobic. 
    • Snapping division. 
    • Palisade arrangement and nonmotile. 
    • Not encapsulated. 
    • Older cells following staining with dyes such as methylene blue appear beaded of granulated. 
    • This is due to the presence of metachromatic granules. 
  6. Genus Mycobacterium
    • Class 
    • Aerobic
    • Nonmotile
    • Slow growing 
    • Rod acid fast bacteria. 
    • Lipid (wax) content of cells and cell wall high. 
    • Includes parasites, saprophytes and obligate parasites. 
  7. Genus Nocardia 
    • Class Actinobacteria
    • All found in the soil. 
    • Capable of metabolizing paraffin. 
    • Some are pathogenic for humans and animals. 
    • Nocardiosis usually occur in patients with cancer, chronic pulmonary disease, or immunosuppressed patients including transplant patients that receive immunosuppressive drugs. 
    • Site of infection is the lungs and is characterized by nodular abscesses. 
    • May become metastatic and involve CNS and kidneys causing abscess formation in the brain and kidneys. 
    • Fatality rates are high in undiagnosed disseminated disease.