Y1: Term 4: Cognition

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Y1: Term 4: Cognition
2013-02-07 02:49:17
Nervous system

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  1. Organisation of Nervous System
  2. Nervous system
    *complex communication system that uses nerve impluse to communicate.

    *NS works closely with Endocrine system to regulate and maintain cell function and homeostasis

    Function is to control and co-ordinates cell activity throughout the body. 
  3. Central nervous system
    • *consists of brain and spinal cord
    • *acts as the integrating and command centers of the NS.
  4. Peripheral nervous system
    • *includes all neural tissue outside the CNS
    • *deliver sensory infomation to the CNS
    • *Carry motor commands to the peripheral tissues and systems
    • *consists of nerves that acts as communicating lines
    • *nerves carry impulses from sensory receptors (skin) to CNS and from CNS to appropriate muscles and glands.
  5. Neurons
    *cells of the nervous system  specialized to transmit messages throughout the body

    • consists of:
    • *sensory (afferent) neurons that conduct impulses to spinal cord and brain
    • * Motor (efferent) neurons that conduct impulses away from spinal cord or brain toward muslces and glands
  6. Neurotransmitter
    Neurotransmitters are the chemicals which allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses
  7. Action Potential
    An action potential is part of the process that occurs during the firing of a neuron. During the action potential, part of the neural membrane opens to allow positively charged ions inside the cell and negatively charged ions out. This process causes a rapid increase in the positive charge of the nerve fiber. When the charge reaches +40 mv, the impulse is propagated down the nerve fiber. This electrical impulse is carried down the nerve through a series of action potentials.
  8. Sympathetic NS
  9. Parasympathetic NS
  10. functional division of PNS
    Afferent (sensory) division > carries sensory info from PNS sensory receptors to CNS

    Efferent (motor) division> Carries motor commands from CNS to PNS muscles and glands
  11. Somatic NS
    Regulates and control skeletal muscel contractions
  12. Enteric NS
    *third division of  autonomic NS, meshwork of nerve fibers that innervate the viscera.
  13. Autonomic NS
    Regulates and controls internal organs by involuntary control

    >Sympathetic division - Prepares the body to deal with immediate threat, stimulating fight and flight response.

    >Parasympathetic division - Co-ordinates the body's resting activities to maintain homeostasis. Has a relaxing effect Eg, rest and digest
  14. Cerebral Cortex
    • Structures:
    • Frontal lope
    • Parietal lope
    • Temporal lobe 
    • Occipital lobe
    • Insula

    Function: Integration, movement and senses such as touch and pressure

    • Contain a sensory map of the body
    • Able to compare, evaluate and responds to bits of information and then integrate then in a whole picture
  15. Diencephalon

    • *located between cerebrum and midbrain
    • *consists of: 
    • Thalamus- serves as a major relay station for sensory inpulses on their way to the cerebral cortex

    Hypothalamus- small but functionally important area of the brain.

    Pineal gland regulates the body's biological clock
  16. Cerebellum
    • *located below the posterior portion of the cerebrum
    • *second largest part of brain
    • *contains more neurons than the rest of the NS, transverse fissure separates the two parts of the brain

    • Function:
    • Fine Movement Coordination
    • Balance and Equilibrium
    • Muscle Tone
  17. Brainstem

    *perform senosory, motor, and reflex functions

    *Spinothalamic tracts is important sensory tracts that pass through the brainstem

    • *Pons contains pneumotaxic centers that help regulate respiration
    • *Midbrain contains centers for certain cranial nerve reflexes
    • *Medulla oblongata
    • lowest part of the brainstem. Attached to spinal cord.
  18. Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Functions:
    • *provides a supportive, protective cushion. 
    • * Resevoir of circulating fluid monitored by the brain to detect changes in the internal enviroment
  19. Blood Brain barrier
    permits the passage of essential substances while excluding unwanted material.
  20. Meninges: covering of the brain

    The three membranous layers that surround the brain

    • *Pia mater
    • *Arachnoid mater
    • *Dura mater

    space between each layer are potential spaces.
  21. Spinal cord
    • *main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral NS.
    • *located in the vertebral foramen and made up of 31 segments

    • *8 Cervical
    • *12 thoracic
    • *5 lumbar
    • *5 Sacral
    • *1 coccygeal
  22. Spinal reflex 

    • *produce spinal reflexes without any input from the brain
    • *They are automatic, no conscious effort
    • *protective mechanism
    • *can be influence by thought and emotion Eg touching hot oven.

    A spinal reflex is an automatic, rapid response to a stimulus. The action is involuntary and occurs without any involvement of thought or the brain
  23. Mini-mental status examination
    *offer quick and simple way to vertify cognitive function and screen for cognitive loss*tests orientation, attention, calculation