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Why is it that when you apply the Medical Model to abnormal behavior represents progress over earlier models?
Because it was based on superstition in the past.
Why is when comparing abnormal behavior to disease my be misleading?
Diseases can only affect the body, not the mind.
Diagnosis involves distinguishing one illness from another
Etiology refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
A prognosis is a forecast about the probable course of an illness
Identify and summarize the three most important criteria in a diagnosis of a psychological disorder
- 1. Deviance - Not being part of the "Norm"
- 2. Maladaptive behavior- behavior or trait that is not adaptive
- 3. Personal Distress- an aversive, self-focused emotional reaction (e.g., anxiety, worry, discomfort)
Identify the Five judgements about individuals that therapists make, using the five axes of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders (DSM-IV)
- Axis 1. Clinical Syndromes
- Axis 2. Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation
- Axis 3. General Medical Conditions
- Axis 4. Psychosocial and Environmental problems
- Axis 5. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale
Define the Generalized Anxiety Disorder
The generalized anxiety disorder is marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat.
Define the class of mood disorders
Mood disorders are a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical,perceptual,social, and through process
Identify the symptoms of major Depressive Disorder
In major depressive disorder people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
Summarize the roles of genetic vulnerability, neurochemical factors, cognitive factors, interpersonal roots, and precipitating stress in mood disorders
- evidence suggests that genetic factors influence the likelihood of developing major depression or bipolar disease
- Neurochemical factors- Correlations have been found between mood disorders and abnormal levels of two neurotransmitters in the brain: norepinephrine and serotonin
- -Low levels of serotonin appear to be a crucial factor underlying more forms of depression
- Cognitive factors- "learned helplessness"
- pessimistic explanatory style are especially vulnerable to depression
- Hopelessness theory builds on these insights by proposing a sense of hopelessness as the "final pathway" leading to depression and by incorporating additional factors that may interact with explanatory style to foster this sense of hopelessness
- Interpersonal Roots- Lack of reinforcers could understandably lead to negative emotions and depressionDepressed people tend to be depression
- The evidence available today suggests that existence of a moderately strong link between stress
and the onset of mood disorders
Define the class of Schizophrenic disorders
Schizophrenic disorders encompass a class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speach, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
Define the general symptoms of schizophrenic disorders
Delusions and irrational thought, deterioration of adaptive behavior, distorted perception, and disturbed emotion
Four subtypes of schizophrenic disorders
Paranoid type,Catatonic type, Disorganized type, and undifferentiated Type
Distinguish between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Positive symptoms involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas
Negative symptoms involved behavioral deficits,such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech
Summarize the roles of genetic vulnerability, neurochemical factors, cognitive factors, structural abnormalities in the brain, expressed motion, and stress in schizophrenic disorders
- Several converging lines of evidence indicate that some people inherit a vulnerability to schizophrenia
- Recent research has also suggested that abnormalities in neural circuits using glutamate as a neurotransmitter may play a role in schizophrenic disturbance
Structural abnormalities in the brain
- Enlarged ventricles
are assumed to reflect the degeneration of nearby brain tissue. It could be the consequence
of schizophrenia or it could be a contributing cause
of the illness
- Expressed emotion - focused on how this element of family dynamics influences the course of schizophrenic illness, after the onset of the disorder
- - it is the degree to which a relative of a schizophrenic patient displays highly critical or emotionally overinvolved attitudes toward the patient
- in most theories it is assumed that stress causes schizophrenia
Define anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa involves intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight, and dangerous measure to lose weight
Bulimia nervosa involves habitually engaging in out-of-control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts such as self-induced vomiting, fasting, abuse of laxatives and diuretics and excessive exercise
Summarize changes in prevalence of eating disorders during the 20th century
Highly influenced by Westerners and is mostly affecting women
Summarize roles of genetic vulnerability, personality factors, cultural values, the role of the family, and cognitive factors in eating disorders
- The evidence is not strong or complete, but some people may inherit a genetic vulnerability to eatind disorders.
- Personality factors- Certain personality traits may increase vulnerability to eating disorders.
- Victims of anorexia nervosa tend to be obsessive, rigid, and emotionally, retrained
- Victims of bulimia nervosa tend to be impulsive, overly sensitive, and low in self-esteem
- Cultural factors- Thanks to this cultural milieu, many young women are dissatisfied with their weight because the societal ideals promoted by the media are unattainable for most of them
- The role of the Family- Some parents who are overly involved in their children's lives turn the normal adolescent push for independence into an unhealthy struggle
- some mothers tell their daughters "you can never be too thin'
- Many theorists emphasize the role of disturbed thinking in the etiology of eating disorders