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a. allergy, cold, and cough remedies, nasal drying agents/decongestants
b. symptomatic management of nasal congestion associated with acute viral upper respiratory tract infections. used in combination with antihistamines in the management of allergic conditions.
c. seizures, anxiety, nervousness, palpitatoins, cardiovascular collapse, anorexia.
d. monitor pulse and b/p before beginning therpahy and periodically during therapy.
e. administer 2hr before bedtime to minimize insomnia.
a. allergy, cold, cough remedies, expectorants
b. reduces viscosity of tenacious secretoin sby increasing respiratory tract fluid. mobilization and subsequent expectoration of mucus.
c. dizziness, headache, n/v/d stomach pain, rashes, urticaria
d. fluids 1500-2000 ml/day
e. administer each dose followed by a full glass of water to decrease viscosity of secretoins
f. instruct pt. to cough effectively. pt. sit upright and take several deep breaths before attempting to cough.
a. allergy, cold, cough remedies, antihistamies, antitussives
b. antagonizes the effects of histamine h1 receptor sites; does not bind to or inactive histamine. significant cns depressant and anticholinergic properties.
c. decresed symptoms of histamine excess (sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal and ocular pruritus, ocular tearing and redness, urticaria). relief of acute dystonic reactions. prevention of motion sickeness. supression of cough.
d. drowsiness, anorexia, dry mouth
e. when used for insomnia administer 20min before bedtime.
f. when used for prophylaxis of motion sickness, admisiter at least 30min and preferably 1-2hr before exposure to conditions that may precipitate motion sickness.
g. administer with meals or milk to minimize gi irritation.
h. prevention of, or decreased urticaria in, anaphylaxis or allergic reactions. decreased dyskinesia in parkinsonism and extrapyridmal reactions. sedation when used as a sedative/hypnotic. prevention of or decrease in n/v caused by motion sickness. decrease in frequency and intensity of cough without eliminating cough reflex.
a. mast cell stabilizers
b. antiasthmatics, allergy, cold and cough remedies
c. management (long-term control) of asthma; prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm. prevention and tx of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis.
d. prevents the release of histamine, leukotrienes, an dslow reacting substances of anaphylaxis from sensitized mast cells.
e. decreased frequency and intesity of asthamtic episodes, allergic reaxtions and mastocytosis.
f. nasal irritation, cough irritation of the throat and trachea, unpleasant taste, anaphylaxis
g. assess for symptoms of mastocytosis )diarrhea, flushing, headache, vomiting, urticaria, abdominal pain, nausea, itching)
h. used prophylactically, not during actue athma attacks
i. before contact with known allergen or exercise, administer 10-15min and no earlier than 60min in advanced
j. therapeutic effects observable 2-4wk after beginning therapy demostrated by: reduction in symptoms of astham, prevention of exercise induced brochospasm, decrease in the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, reduction in symptoms of mastocytosis
a. allergy, cold, cough remedies, antitussives (local anesthetic)
b. releif of nonproductive cough due to minor throat or bronchial irritation from inhaled irritatnts or colds.
c. anesthetizes cough or stretch receptors in vagal nerve afferent fibers found in lungs, pleura, and respiratory passages. may also decrease transmission of the cough reflex centrally.
d. decrease in cough.
e. headache, mild dizziness, sedation, burning sensation in eyes, nasal congestion, constipation, gi upset, nausea, pruritus, skin eruptions, chest numbness, chilly sensation, hypersensitivity reactions.
f. fluid intake 1500-2000ml to decrease viscosity of bronchial secretions
g. instruct pt to cough effectively, sit up right and take several deep breaths before attempting to cough
c. used as a bronchodilator to control and prevent reversible airway obstruction caused by asthama or COPD. inhaln: used as a quick relief agent for acute bronchospasm and for prevention of exercise induced bronchospasm po: used as a long term control agent in patients with chronic/persistent bronchospasm.
d. nervousness, reslessness, tremor, chest pain, palpitations
e. assess lung sounds, pulse, bp before administration and during peak of meditcation. note amount, color, and character of sputum produced.
f. prime with 4 sprays, discard after 200
g. use albuterol first if using other inhalation medications and allow 5 min to elapse before admistering other inhalant medications unless otherwise directed.
h. rinse mouth with water after each inhalation dose to min. dry mouth.
c. long term control of reversible airway obstruction caused by astham or COPD. increases diaphragmatic contractility. respiratory and myocardial stimulant in premature infant apnea.
d. seizures, anxiety, arrhythmias, tachycardia, n/v
e. assess bp, pulse, respiratory status before and throughout therapy.
f. cardiovascular problems should be monitored for chest pain and ecg changes. resuscitative equipment should be readily available.
g. monitor pulmonary function tests before and periodically during therapy to determine therapeutic efficacy in pt with chronic bronchitis or emphysema
h. lab tests: monitor abgs, acid base, and fluid and electrolyte balance in pt recieving parenteral therapy or whenever required by pt condition
i. po: administer oral preparations with food or a full glass of water to minimize gi irritation. maybe administered 1hr before or 2 hr after meals for more rapid absorption.
a. thrombolytic agents
b. plasminogen activators
c. acute massive pulmonary emboli
d. convert plasminogen to plasmin which is then able to degrade fibrin present in clots. directly activate plasminogen.
e. lysis of thrombbi in coronary arteries with preservation of ventricular function or improvement of ventricular function. lysis of pulmonary emboli or dvt. lysis of thrombi causing ischemic stroke, reducing risk of neurologic sequelae. restoration of cannula or catheter patency and funcion.
f. onset: immediate/peak: rapid/duration: up to 12hrs
g. intracranial hemmorrhage, gi bleeding, retroperitoneal bleeding, gu tract bleeding, bleeding, anaphylaxis
h. monitor vital sings, including temp, continuously for coronary thrombosis and at least q4h during therpay for other indications. notify physician sbp >180 dbp >110. should not be given if htn is uncontrolled. inform if hotn occurs, may result from the durg, hemorrhage or cardiogenic shock.
i. assess pt carefullly for bleeding every 15min during the 1st hr of therapy, every 15-30min during the next 8hr and at least every 4hr for the duration of the therapy
j. assess neurologic status throughout therapy. altered sensorium or neurologic changes maybe indicative of intracranial bleeding
k. lysis of thrombi and restoration of blood flow. prevention of neurologic sequelae in acute ischemic stroke. cannula or catheter patency.
c. active tuberculosis (with other agents). elimination of meningococcal carriers.
d. bactericidal action against suspecible organism.
e. red discoloration of tears, abd pain, n/v/d, flatulence, heartburn, red discoloration of urine, red discoloration of all body fluids
f. labs: evaluate renal function, cbc, and urinalysis periodically and during therapy. monitor hepatic function at least monthly during therapy. may cause increase bun, ast, alt and serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, uric acid concentrations
g. po: administer medication on an empty stomach at least 1hr before or 2hr after meals with a full glass (240 ml) of water. if gi irritation becomes a problem, maybe admin. with food. antacids maybe taken 1hr pror to administration
h. inform pt that saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, and feces may become red orage to red brown and that soft contact lenses may become permanently discolored.
i. decreased fever, night sweats, diminished cough and sputum production, negative sputum cultures, increased appetite, wt gain, reduced fatigue, sense of well being in pt with tb, prevention of meningococcal meningitis, prevention of h. influenzae
c. txt of serious gram negative bacillary infections and infections caused by staphylococci when penicillins o other less toxic drugs are contraindicated. -- in combination with other agents in management of active tb.
d. ataxia, ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity
e. assess pt for infection (vital signs, wound appeaance, sputum, urine, stool, wbc) at beginning of and throughout therapy
f. obtain specimens for c&s before initiating therapy
g. monitor i&o and daily wt to assess hydration status of renal function
h. hepatic encephalopathy- monitor neurologic status before admin. oral medications, assess pt ability to swallow.
i. lab tests monitor renal function by urinalysis, specific gravity, bun, creatinine, and ccr before and during therapy
b. active tuberculosis or other mycobacterial diseases (with at least one other drug)
c. inhibits the growth of mycobacteria
d. tuberculostatic effect against susceptible organisms
e. optic neuritis, hepatitis
f. labs: monitor renal and hepatic functions, cbc, uric acid levels routinely therapy. frequently causes elevated uric acid concentrations, which may precipitate an attack of gout
g. po: admin with food or milk to min gi irritation