Chemistry Chapter 5

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lharttrup
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182964
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Chemistry Chapter 5
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2012-11-24 12:26:03
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chemistry chapter 5
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  1. Alkali metal

    Alkaline earth metal

    Halogens

    Noble gases
  2. what is an atom?
    the smallest particle of an element that retains the identity of the element
  3. what is an electron?
    • a negatively charged particle within the atom
    • (written e-
    • on energy level
  4. what is a subatomic particle?
    a particle that is smaller than the atom
  5. what is the nucleus?
    • in chemistry, the positivley charged centre of an atom
    • is comprised of protons and neutrons
  6. what is a proton?
    • a positively charged particle that is part of every atomic nucleus
    • same amount of protons as electrons in an atom
    • (written p+)
  7. what is a neutron?
    • an uncharged particle that is part of almost every atomic nucleus
    • neutral charge 
    • atomic mass-atomic number=number of neutrons
    • (written n0)
  8. what are energy levels?
    • a possible level of energy an electron can have in an atom
    • an electron must absorb energy to move up a level
  9. what is an atomic number?
    the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom or the number of electrons 
  10. what is a mass number?
    • the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
  11. what is an isotope?
    • one of two or more forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
    • is the reason for decimals on mass numbers
  12. what is the bohr-rutherford diagram?
    • indicate number of protons and neutrons in nucleus
  13. what is atomic mass?
    • the average mass of the  naturally occuring  isotopes of an element
    • elements are placed in order of increasing atomic mass on periodic table.
    • number of protons and neutrons in nucleus
  14. what is the periodic table?
    • a system for organizing the elements into columns and rows, so elements with similar properties are in the same column
  15. what is a metal?
    • typically, an element that is hard, shiny, malleable, and ductile, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity
    • eg. copper, nickel
  16. what is a non metal?
    • typically, an element that is not shiny, malleable or ductile, and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
    • eg.bromine, oxygen
  17. what is a metalloid?
    • an element that shares some properties with metals and some properties with non metals
    • eg. antimony, silicon
  18. what is a period?
    • a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
    • numbered from 1 to 7
  19. what is a group?
    • a vertical column of elements in the periodic table
    • numbered from 1 to 18
    • also called a family
    • have very similar physical and chemical properties
  20. what is a valance electron?
    an electron in the outermost occupied energy level of an atom
  21. what are Alkali Metals?
    • the elements in group 1(except for hydrogen). 
    • have low melting points
    • soft enough to be cut with a knife
    • highly reactive with water and oxygen
    • eg. lithium, sodium, potassium
  22. what are alkaline earth metals?
    • elements of group 2
    • highly reactive, but less than alkali metals
    • if heated, will burn in air- combustible
    • often used in fireworks
    • produce bright flames
    • eg. beryllium, magnesium, calcium
  23. what are halogens?
    • elements of group 17
    • highly reactive
    • extremely corrosive
    • melting points increase as you move from top to bottom of group

    eg. gases are; florine, bromine, liquid is bromine, iodine is solid at room temperature
  24. what are noble gases?
    • elements of group 18
    • main property is non reactivity
    • non metals
    • odorless, and colourless at room temperature
    • eg.helium, neon, xenon

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