Chemistry Chapter 5

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Chemistry Chapter 5
2012-11-24 12:26:03
Chemistry chapter

chemistry chapter 5
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  1. Alkali metal

    Alkaline earth metal


    Noble gases
  2. what is an atom?
    the smallest particle of an element that retains the identity of the element
  3. what is an electron?
    • a negatively charged particle within the atom
    • (written e-
    • on energy level
  4. what is a subatomic particle?
    a particle that is smaller than the atom
  5. what is the nucleus?
    • in chemistry, the positivley charged centre of an atom
    • is comprised of protons and neutrons
  6. what is a proton?
    • a positively charged particle that is part of every atomic nucleus
    • same amount of protons as electrons in an atom
    • (written p+)
  7. what is a neutron?
    • an uncharged particle that is part of almost every atomic nucleus
    • neutral charge 
    • atomic mass-atomic number=number of neutrons
    • (written n0)
  8. what are energy levels?
    • a possible level of energy an electron can have in an atom
    • an electron must absorb energy to move up a level
  9. what is an atomic number?
    the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom or the number of electrons 
  10. what is a mass number?
    • the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
  11. what is an isotope?
    • one of two or more forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
    • is the reason for decimals on mass numbers
  12. what is the bohr-rutherford diagram?
    • indicate number of protons and neutrons in nucleus
  13. what is atomic mass?
    • the average mass of the  naturally occuring  isotopes of an element
    • elements are placed in order of increasing atomic mass on periodic table.
    • number of protons and neutrons in nucleus
  14. what is the periodic table?
    • a system for organizing the elements into columns and rows, so elements with similar properties are in the same column
  15. what is a metal?
    • typically, an element that is hard, shiny, malleable, and ductile, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity
    • eg. copper, nickel
  16. what is a non metal?
    • typically, an element that is not shiny, malleable or ductile, and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
    • eg.bromine, oxygen
  17. what is a metalloid?
    • an element that shares some properties with metals and some properties with non metals
    • eg. antimony, silicon
  18. what is a period?
    • a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
    • numbered from 1 to 7
  19. what is a group?
    • a vertical column of elements in the periodic table
    • numbered from 1 to 18
    • also called a family
    • have very similar physical and chemical properties
  20. what is a valance electron?
    an electron in the outermost occupied energy level of an atom
  21. what are Alkali Metals?
    • the elements in group 1(except for hydrogen). 
    • have low melting points
    • soft enough to be cut with a knife
    • highly reactive with water and oxygen
    • eg. lithium, sodium, potassium
  22. what are alkaline earth metals?
    • elements of group 2
    • highly reactive, but less than alkali metals
    • if heated, will burn in air- combustible
    • often used in fireworks
    • produce bright flames
    • eg. beryllium, magnesium, calcium
  23. what are halogens?
    • elements of group 17
    • highly reactive
    • extremely corrosive
    • melting points increase as you move from top to bottom of group

    eg. gases are; florine, bromine, liquid is bromine, iodine is solid at room temperature
  24. what are noble gases?
    • elements of group 18
    • main property is non reactivity
    • non metals
    • odorless, and colourless at room temperature
    • eg.helium, neon, xenon