anp lab2

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anp lab2
2012-11-11 14:37:19

for lab
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  1. character
    a heritable feature of an organism that varies amoung individuals, features such as flower color in mendels peas or freckles in humans
  2. trait
    a variety or state of a charcter, such as white flower color in peas or no greckles on a human
  3. structural gene
    the functional unit of heredity. it is found at particular locations on the chromosome, and the nucleotide sequence derermines the primary structure of all polypeptieds and proteins
  4. allele
    • an altrernative form of a gene which occurs at the same location on homologous chromosomes
    • for example the gene which codes for abo blood type hass three alleles A,B,O
  5. genotype
    • the actual alleles present for a given gene on homologous chromosomes
    • genotype are ecpressed in letters for example
    • human blood group geno types are¬† AA,BB ,AO,BB,OO
  6. phenotype
    the outward expression of a genotype, or what the trait looks like externally, or physically. for example, human blood groups the phenotypes determine whether a prson has type A,B,AB or type O blood. phenotypes are described adjective words
  7. homozygous
    a genotype with the same alleles for a gene on homologous chromosomes. for example. in human blood groups the homozygous conditions would be: genotype AA,BB, and OO
  8. heterozygous
    a genotype with different alleles for a gene on homologous chromosome. for example, in human blood groups the heterozgous conditions would be: AB, AO, and BO
  9. dominant allele
    the allele expressed in a phenotype when a genotype is herterozygous. for example, in humans blood groups the A and B alleles are dominat to the O allele. a preson with an AO or BO genotype has type A or B blood respectively
  10. recessive allels
    the allele not expressed in the phenotype when the genotype is heterozygous. recessive alleles are only expressed when the genotype is homozygous. for example, in human blood groups the O allele is recessive. it is genotypes are AO or BO
  11. codominant
    a genetic condition which occurs when neither allele is dominant over an other, but both are expressed  in the phenotyope. for example inhuman blood groups A and B alleles are codminant, and a person with AB genotype has type AB blood as the pheotype