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When is the best time to give oxytocin with a uterine prolapse? why?
- give after repositioning of uterus
- b/c it will close cervix and you cant replace uterus without amputation
Why is it VERY important to maintain NSAID and antibiotic therapy in a mare with uterine prolapse?
To prevent metritis which will lead to laminitis which can be catastrophic/fatal
Is vaginal prolapse common in the mare?
No- rarely happens in mares
What is the main problem with all cervical problems in the mare?
Hard to get to cervix to examine/treat
Why is it important to get a uterine biopsy in a brood mare before you proceed to surgical correction of a cervical condition?
If the uterus cannot sustain a pregnancy there is no point in fixing the cervix
What is a better way to repair lacerations of the cervix- standing anesthesia or general anesthesia?
General Anesthesia- because we can use stay sutures to pull the cervix caudally and get the best visualization
Where does uterine torsion happen in the ruminant? in the mare?
- ruminant- caudal to cervix
- mare- cranial to cervix
When in gestation does uterine torsion happen in the cow? the mare?
- cow- occur just before delivery
- mare- occur several months before delivery
Does cow or mare show abdominal pain with a uterine torsion? How does vulva appear with each?
- abdominal pain seen in mare only
- vulva asymmetrical in cow only
What is conservative management for a uterine torsion? how is the mare placed?
- casting and rolling the mare
- mare on right side if twist counter-clockwise (& visa versa)
- roll mare in same direction as twist
If a mare as a uterine torsion of >270 degrees what is the protocol?
C-section to save the mares life (fetus dead or will die before term)
How is a diagnosis commonly made for uterine rupture and why?
- Dx= by behavior and peritonitis after foaling
- because most tears on horns and cannot be palpated
When is the window of opportunity to save a foal by C-section?
once 2nd stage of labor starts you have 30 minutes
What are predisposing factors for a C-section in a mare?
- 1. bicornual/transverse pregnancy (rare)
- 2. large fetus
- 3. malposition that cant be corrected (most common)
- 4. uterine torsion
- 5. malformed maternal pelvis (old fractures)
Is the sire or the dam the major determining factor in the size of the fetus?
- dam determines fetus size
- (mare bred to big stallion will still be able to deliver foal most likely)
How is anesthesia for a c-section determined?
- by status of fetus
- -dead fetus= use any safe GA for mare
- -alive fetus= minimal barbituates, maintain on gas
If the foal is alive for a C-section does the placenta stay or go? what if the foal is dead?
- alive foal- placenta stays, mare will pass later
- dead foal- remove as much of placenta as you can at time of sx
How is the uterus closed after a C-section? what time of suture pattern?
- 2 layers
- Cushing then Lembert/Utrect
Are cystic ovaries common in mares like they are in cows?
no- cystic ovaries are extremely rare
Will removing the ovaries of a nymphomaniac mare solve the problem?
no- doesnt usually help
What is the most common ovarian neoplasm in the mare? what are others?
- most common= granulosa cell tumor
- others = teratoma (!!), cystadenocarcinoma, melanoma, epithelioma, cystadenoma
What are some differentials for a nymphomaniac mare?
- granulosa cell tumor
- chronic vaginitis
- cyclical abnormal behavior
- unknown why- environmental problem maybe?
Does an ovariectomy prevent a mare from cycling?
no- but some modification of heat or intensity can be seen
What is the best approach to an ovariectomy?
T or F: if you have small enough hands sometimes you can reach into the urethra of a mare and remove a calculi?
true!- the urethra is very distendable in a mare