LA Sx, Q3, VIII

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HLW
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182971
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LA Sx, Q3, VIII
Updated:
2012-11-11 14:47:17
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LA Sx Q3 VIII
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LA Sx, Q3, VIII
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  1. When is the best time to give oxytocin with a uterine prolapse? why?
    • give after repositioning of uterus
    • b/c it will close cervix and you cant replace uterus without amputation
  2. Why is it VERY important to maintain NSAID and antibiotic therapy in a mare with uterine prolapse?
    To prevent metritis which will lead to laminitis which can be catastrophic/fatal
  3. Is vaginal prolapse common in the mare?
    No- rarely happens in mares
  4. What is the main problem with all cervical problems in the mare?
    Hard to get to cervix to examine/treat
  5. Why is it important to get a uterine biopsy in a brood mare before you proceed to surgical correction of a cervical condition?
    If the uterus cannot sustain a pregnancy there is no point in fixing the cervix
  6. What is a better way to repair lacerations of the cervix- standing anesthesia or general anesthesia?
    General Anesthesia- because we can use stay sutures to pull the cervix caudally and get the best visualization
  7. Where does uterine torsion happen in the ruminant? in the mare?
    • ruminant- caudal to cervix
    • mare- cranial to cervix
  8. When in gestation does uterine torsion happen in the cow? the mare?
    • cow- occur just before delivery
    • mare- occur several months before delivery
  9. Does cow or mare show abdominal pain with a uterine torsion? How does vulva appear with each?
    • abdominal pain seen in mare only
    • vulva asymmetrical in cow only
  10. What is conservative management for a uterine torsion? how is the mare placed?
    • casting and rolling the mare
    • mare on right side if twist counter-clockwise (& visa versa)
    • roll mare in same direction as twist
  11. If a mare as a uterine torsion of >270 degrees what is the protocol?
    C-section to save the mares life (fetus dead or will die before term)
  12. How is a diagnosis commonly made for uterine rupture and why?
    • Dx= by behavior and peritonitis after foaling
    • because most tears on horns and cannot be palpated
  13. When is the window of opportunity to save a foal by C-section?
    once 2nd stage of labor starts you have 30 minutes
  14. What are predisposing factors for a C-section in a mare?
    • 1. bicornual/transverse pregnancy (rare)
    • 2. large fetus
    • 3. malposition that cant be corrected (most common)
    • 4. uterine torsion
    • 5. malformed maternal pelvis (old fractures)
  15. Is the sire or the dam the major determining factor in the size of the fetus?
    • dam determines fetus size
    • (mare bred to big stallion will still be able to deliver foal most likely)
  16. How is anesthesia for a c-section determined?
    • by status of fetus
    • -dead fetus= use any safe GA for mare
    • -alive fetus= minimal barbituates, maintain on gas
  17. If the foal is alive for a C-section does the placenta stay or go? what if the foal is dead?
    • alive foal- placenta stays, mare will pass later
    • dead foal- remove as much of placenta as you can at time of sx
  18. How is the uterus closed after a C-section? what time of suture pattern?
    • 2 layers
    • absorbable
    • Cushing then Lembert/Utrect
  19. Are cystic ovaries common in mares like they are in cows?
    no- cystic ovaries are extremely rare
  20. Will removing the ovaries of a nymphomaniac mare solve the problem?
    no- doesnt usually help
  21. What is the most common ovarian neoplasm in the mare? what are others?
    • most common= granulosa cell tumor
    • others = teratoma (!!), cystadenocarcinoma, melanoma, epithelioma, cystadenoma
  22. What are some differentials for a nymphomaniac mare?
    • granulosa cell tumor
    • chronic vaginitis
    • cyclical abnormal behavior
    • unknown why- environmental problem maybe?
  23. Does an ovariectomy prevent a mare from cycling?
    no- but some modification of heat or intensity can be seen
  24. What is the best approach to an ovariectomy?
    Parainguinal
  25. T or F: if you have small enough hands sometimes you can reach into the urethra of a mare and remove a calculi?
    true!- the urethra is very distendable in a mare

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