LA Sx, Q3, VIII
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LA Sx, Q3, VIII
LA Sx Q3 VIII
LA Sx, Q3, VIII
When is the best time to give oxytocin with a uterine prolapse? why?
give after repositioning of uterus
b/c it will close cervix and you cant replace uterus without amputation
Why is it VERY important to maintain NSAID and antibiotic therapy in a mare with uterine prolapse?
To prevent metritis which will lead to laminitis which can be catastrophic/fatal
Is vaginal prolapse common in the mare?
No- rarely happens in mares
What is the main problem with all cervical problems in the mare?
Hard to get to cervix to examine/treat
Why is it important to get a uterine biopsy in a brood mare before you proceed to surgical correction of a cervical condition?
If the uterus cannot sustain a pregnancy there is no point in fixing the cervix
What is a better way to repair lacerations of the cervix- standing anesthesia or general anesthesia?
General Anesthesia- because we can use stay sutures to pull the cervix caudally and get the best visualization
Where does uterine torsion happen in the ruminant? in the mare?
ruminant- caudal to cervix
mare- cranial to cervix
When in gestation does uterine torsion happen in the cow? the mare?
cow- occur just before delivery
mare- occur several months before delivery
Does cow or mare show abdominal pain with a uterine torsion? How does vulva appear with each?
abdominal pain seen in mare only
vulva asymmetrical in cow only
What is conservative management for a uterine torsion? how is the mare placed?
casting and rolling the mare
mare on right side if twist counter-clockwise (& visa versa)
roll mare in same direction as twist
If a mare as a uterine torsion of >270 degrees what is the protocol?
C-section to save the mares life (fetus dead or will die before term)
How is a diagnosis commonly made for uterine rupture and why?
Dx= by behavior and peritonitis after foaling
because most tears on horns and cannot be palpated
When is the window of opportunity to save a foal by C-section?
once 2nd stage of labor starts you have 30 minutes
What are predisposing factors for a C-section in a mare?
1. bicornual/transverse pregnancy (rare)
2. large fetus
3. malposition that cant be corrected (most common)
4. uterine torsion
5. malformed maternal pelvis (old fractures)
Is the sire or the dam the major determining factor in the size of the fetus?
dam determines fetus size
(mare bred to big stallion will still be able to deliver foal most likely)
How is anesthesia for a c-section determined?
by status of fetus
-dead fetus= use any safe GA for mare
-alive fetus= minimal barbituates, maintain on gas
If the foal is alive for a C-section does the placenta stay or go? what if the foal is dead?
alive foal- placenta stays, mare will pass later
dead foal- remove as much of placenta as you can at time of sx
How is the uterus closed after a C-section? what time of suture pattern?
Cushing then Lembert/Utrect
Are cystic ovaries common in mares like they are in cows?
no- cystic ovaries are extremely rare
Will removing the ovaries of a nymphomaniac mare solve the problem?
no- doesnt usually help
What is the most common ovarian neoplasm in the mare? what are others?
most common= granulosa cell tumor
others = teratoma (!!), cystadenocarcinoma, melanoma, epithelioma, cystadenoma
What are some differentials for a nymphomaniac mare?
granulosa cell tumor
cyclical abnormal behavior
unknown why- environmental problem maybe?
Does an ovariectomy prevent a mare from cycling?
no- but some modification of heat or intensity can be seen
What is the best approach to an ovariectomy?
T or F: if you have small enough hands sometimes you can reach into the urethra of a mare and remove a calculi?
true!- the urethra is very distendable in a mare