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On the graph of atomic radii versus atomic number, where does the maxima and minima occur?
- maxima: group 1A elements
- minima: group 7A elements
Visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves, X rays, and other forms of radiant energy are all different kinds of __ and make up the __.
- electromagnetic energy
- electromagnetic spectrum
What has the lowest frequency?
Electromagnetic energy is characterized by a __, __, and __.
What is the wavelength?
the distance between successive wave peaks
What is frequency? units?
- the number of wave peaks that pass a given point per unit time
- Hertz or reciprocal seconds s-1
What is amplitude?
the height of the wave maximum from the center
Multiplying the wavelength of a wave in meters by its frequeny in reciprocal seconds gives the __.
- speed of the wave in meters per second
- wavelength (m) x frequency (s-1) = (c) speed m/s
Say the wavelengths of the spectrum from largest wavelength to smallest wavelength.
- radio waves
- x rays
- gamma rays
Which color has a longer wavelength? Shorter?
wavelengths of light emitted by an energetically excited atom
To eject electrons from a metal, what must happen?
the light must be above some threshold value
What is the equation for energy?
- E= hv= (hc/wavelength)
- h= Planck's constant in J x s
Higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths correspond to __ energy radiation, while lower frequencines and longer wavelengths correspond to __.
- higher energy radiation
- lower energy
Energy of an individual photon depends only on its __, not on the __.
- frequency or wavelength
- intensity of the light beam
The intensity of a light beam is a __, whereas frequency is a __
- measure of the number of photons in the beam
- measure of the energies of those photons
What is quantized?
both matter and electromagnetic energy occur only in discrete amounts
As the value of n increases, what happens between the energy adn distance?
the distance increaes and the energy increases
Within each subshell--orbitals with the same shape, or value of l--there are __ (m) different spatial orientations for htose orbitals.
Ex: If l=0, then ml =0 (same as 2(0)+1. There's only one solution)
Each subshell can hold the amount of __, while the numer of orbitals in the shell is __
- the total of the whole shell
All s orbitals are __
As the number of s shells increases, the number of nodes increases as well. For example, state the 2s and 3s orbital probabiity and nodes.
- 2s has two high probability regions and one node
- 32 has three high probability and two spherical nodes
Shape of p orbital.
The third and higher shells each contain __d orbitals, which differ from their s and p counterparts because they have two different shapes. Four of the five d orbitals are __ shaped and have __ lobes of maximum electron probability separated by __ through the nucleus. The fifth d orbital is similarin shape to a __ orbital but has an additional __ region of electron probability centered in the __ plane.
- two nodal planes
- pz donut shaped
Energetically excited atoms are relatively __, and the electron rapidly does what?
- returns to a lower-energy level accompanied by emission of energy equal to the difference between the higher and lower orbitals`
In the Balmer- Rydberg equation, what do m and n equal?
- m= shell the transition is to
- n= shell the transition is from
Energy is __ to add an electron.
Energy is __ to remove an electron from a hydrogen atom.
True or False:
All atoms show atomic line spectra when energetically excited electrons fall from higher-energy orbitals in outer shells to lower-energy orbitals in inner shells.
What is the fourth quantum number?
What are the two values it can have?
- spin quantum number (denotes electron spin)
- +1/2 -1/2
The difference in energy between subshells in multielectron atoms results from __.
electron electron repulsions
What is the equation for Z effective?
- Zeff= Z-S
- Z= number of protons
- S= number of screening (shielding electrons in nonvalence shells)
What is the ground state?
the resultant lowerst energy configuration
On the periodic table, which direction does radius increase? decrease? Explain.
- increases going down columns (larger valence-shell orbitals are occupied)
- decreases going across (due to increase in effective nuclear charge caused by increasing number of protons)