Textbook Chapter Five

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Textbook Chapter Five
2012-11-11 16:54:52
Exam III

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  1. On the graph of atomic radii versus atomic number, where does the maxima and minima occur?
    • maxima: group 1A elements
    • minima: group 7A elements
  2. Visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves, X rays, and other forms of radiant energy are all different kinds of __ and make up the __.
    • electromagnetic energy
    • electromagnetic spectrum
  3. What has the lowest frequency?
    radio waves
  4. Highest frequency?
    gamima rays
  5. Lowest wavelength
    gamma rays
  6. highest wavelength
    radio waves
  7. Electromagnetic energy is characterized by a __, __, and __.
    • frequency 
    • wavelength
    • amplitude 
  8. What is the wavelength?
    the distance between successive wave peaks
  9. What is frequency? units?
    • the number of wave peaks that pass a given point per unit time
    • Hertz or reciprocal seconds s-1
  10. What is amplitude?
    the height of the wave maximum from the center
  11. Multiplying the wavelength of a wave in meters by its frequeny in reciprocal seconds gives the __.
    • speed of the wave in meters per second
    • wavelength (m) x frequency (s-1) = (c) speed m/s 
  12. Say the wavelengths of the spectrum from largest wavelength to smallest wavelength.
    • radio waves
    • microwaves
    • infrared
    • visible
    • ultraviolet
    • x rays
    • gamma rays
  13. Which color has a longer wavelength? Shorter?
    • red
    • blue
  14. Line spectrum
    wavelengths of light emitted by an energetically excited atom
  15. To eject electrons from a metal, what must happen?
    the light must be above some threshold value
  16. What is the equation for energy?
    • E= hv= (hc/wavelength)
    • h= Planck's constant in J x s
  17. Higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths correspond to __ energy radiation, while lower frequencines and longer wavelengths correspond to __.
    • higher energy radiation
    • lower energy
  18. Energy of an individual photon depends only on its __, not on the __.
    • frequency or wavelength
    • intensity of the light beam
  19. The intensity of a light beam is a __, whereas frequency is a __
    • measure of the number of photons in the beam
    • measure of the energies of those photons
  20. What is quantized?
    both matter and electromagnetic energy occur only in discrete amounts
  21. As the value of n increases, what happens between the energy adn distance?
    the distance increaes and the energy increases
  22. Within each subshell--orbitals with the same shape, or value of l--there are __ (m) different spatial orientations for htose orbitals.

    Ex: If l=0, then ml =0 (same as 2(0)+1. There's only one solution)
  23. Each subshell can hold the amount of __, while the numer of orbitals in the shell is __
    • 2l+1
    • the total of the whole shell
  24. All s orbitals are __
  25. As the number of s shells increases, the number of nodes increases as well. For example, state the 2s and 3s orbital probabiity and nodes.
    • 2s has two high probability regions and one node
    • 32 has three high probability and two spherical nodes
  26. Shape of p orbital.
    dumbbell shaped
  27. The third and higher shells each contain __d orbitals, which differ from their s and p counterparts because they have two different shapes. Four of the five d orbitals are __ shaped and have __ lobes of maximum electron probability separated by __ through the nucleus. The fifth d orbital is similarin shape to a __ orbital but has an additional __ region of electron probability centered in the __ plane. 
    • 5
    • clover-leaf
    • four 
    • two nodal planes
    • pz donut shaped
    • xy
  28. Energetically excited atoms are relatively __, and the electron rapidly does what?
    • unstable
    • returns to a lower-energy level accompanied by emission of energy equal to the difference between the higher and lower orbitals`
  29. In the Balmer- Rydberg equation, what do m and n equal?
    • m= shell the transition is to
    • n= shell the transition is from
  30. Energy is __ to add an electron.
  31. Energy is __ to remove an electron from a hydrogen atom.
  32. True or False:
    All atoms show atomic line spectra when energetically excited electrons fall from higher-energy orbitals in outer shells to lower-energy orbitals in inner shells.
  33. What is the fourth quantum number?
    What are the two values it can have?
    • ms 
    • spin quantum number (denotes electron spin)
    • +1/2 -1/2
  34. The difference in energy between subshells in multielectron atoms results from __.
    electron electron repulsions
  35. What is the equation for Z effective?
    • Zeff= Z-S
    • Z= number of protons
    • S= number of screening (shielding electrons in nonvalence shells)
  36. What is the ground state?
    the resultant lowerst energy configuration
  37. On the periodic table, which direction does radius increase? decrease? Explain.
    • increases going down columns (larger valence-shell orbitals are occupied)
    • decreases going across (due to increase in effective nuclear charge caused by increasing number of protons)