On the graph of atomic radii versus atomic number, where does the maxima and minima occur?
maxima: group 1A elements
minima: group 7A elements
Visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves, X rays, and other forms of radiant energy are all different kinds of __ and make up the __.
What has the lowest frequency?
Electromagnetic energy is characterized by a __, __, and __.
What is the wavelength?
the distance between successive wave peaks
What is frequency? units?
the number of wave peaks that pass a given point per unit time
Hertz or reciprocal seconds s-1
What is amplitude?
the height of the wave maximum from the center
Multiplying the wavelength of a wave in meters by its frequeny in reciprocal seconds gives the __.
speed of the wave in meters per second
wavelength (m) x frequency (s-1) = (c) speed m/s
Say the wavelengths of the spectrum from largest wavelength to smallest wavelength.
Which color has a longer wavelength? Shorter?
wavelengths of light emitted by an energetically excited atom
To eject electrons from a metal, what must happen?
the light must be above some threshold value
What is the equation for energy?
E= hv= (hc/wavelength)
h= Planck's constant in J x s
Higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths correspond to __ energy radiation, while lower frequencines and longer wavelengths correspond to __.
higher energy radiation
Energy of an individual photon depends only on its __, not on the __.
frequency or wavelength
intensity of the light beam
The intensity of a light beam is a __, whereas frequency is a __
measure of the number of photons in the beam
measure of the energies of those photons
What is quantized?
both matter and electromagnetic energy occur only in discrete amounts
As the value of n increases, what happens between the energy adn distance?
the distance increaes and the energy increases
Within each subshell--orbitals with the same shape, or value of l--there are __ (m) different spatial orientations for htose orbitals.
Ex: If l=0, then ml =0 (same as 2(0)+1. There's only one solution)
Each subshell can hold the amount of __, while the numer of orbitals in the shell is __
the total of the whole shell
All s orbitals are __
As the number of s shells increases, the number of nodes increases as well. For example, state the 2s and 3s orbital probabiity and nodes.
2s has two high probability regions and one node
32 has three high probability and two spherical nodes
Shape of p orbital.
The third and higher shells each contain __d orbitals, which differ from their s and p counterparts because they have two different shapes. Four of the five d orbitals are __ shaped and have __ lobes of maximum electron probability separated by __ through the nucleus. The fifth d orbital is similarin shape to a __ orbital but has an additional __ region of electron probability centered in the __ plane.
two nodal planes
pz donut shaped
Energetically excited atoms are relatively __, and the electron rapidly does what?
returns to a lower-energy level accompanied by emission of energy equal to the difference between the higher and lower orbitals`
In the Balmer- Rydberg equation, what do m and n equal?
m= shell the transition is to
n= shell the transition is from
Energy is __ to add an electron.
Energy is __ to remove an electron from a hydrogen atom.
True or False:
All atoms show atomic line spectra when energetically excited electrons fall from higher-energy orbitals in outer shells to lower-energy orbitals in inner shells.
What is the fourth quantum number?
What are the two values it can have?
spin quantum number (denotes electron spin)
The difference in energy between subshells in multielectron atoms results from __.
electron electron repulsions
What is the equation for Z effective?
Z= number of protons
S= number of screening (shielding electrons in nonvalence shells)
What is the ground state?
the resultant lowerst energy configuration
On the periodic table, which direction does radius increase? decrease? Explain.
increases going down columns (larger valence-shell orbitals are occupied)
decreases going across (due to increase in effective nuclear charge caused by increasing number of protons)