A&P 202 Study Guide Exam 4
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A&P 202 Study Guide Exam 4
Which organs are the major excretory organs?
Which organ serves as a temporary storage reservoir for urine?
Which organ transports urine from the kidneys to the bladder?
Which organ transports urine out of the body?
How many liters of fluid do the kidneys filter from the body daily?
The kidneys function in the removal of what 3 things from the blood?
The kidneys function in the regulation of what 3 things?
During prolonged fasting, what process do the kidneys function in?
The kidneys have endocrine functions. Which hormone plays a role in regulation of blood pressure and kidney function?
The kidneys have endocrine functions. Which hormone plays a role in regulation of RBC production?
They kidneys function to activate which vitamin?
Which kidney is lower, the right or the left?
Right kidney is lower than the left
Which 4 body structures enter and exit at the hilum of the kidney?
renal Blood Vessels
What is the outer covering of the kidney called?
Which part of the kidney prevents spread and infection to the kidney?
What is the granular superficial region of the kidney called?
What is the cone-shaped medullary (renal) pyraminds seperated by renal columns of the kidney called?
On the kidney, what is the tip of the pyramid called that releases urine into the minor calyx?
What is the funnyl shaped tube within the kidney called?
The renal pelvis
What are the branching channels of the renal pelvis that collect urine from the minor calyces called?
What are the branching channels of the renal pelvis that empty urine into the pelvis called?
Urine flows from the renal pelvis to the _____.
What are the structural and functional units that form urine?
Aprox. how many nephrons are there per kidney?
~ 1 million per kidney
There are 2 main parts of the nephrons. Which part are a tuft of capillaries?
There are 2 main parts of nephrons, which part begins as a cup-shaped glomerular (bowman's) capusule surrounding the glomerulus?
Which two structures is the renal corpuscle made up of?
Glomerulus + its glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
Which part of the renal capsule is made up of fenestrated flomerular capillaries?
Which part of the renal corpuscle allows filterate to pass from plasma into the glomerular capsule?
Which is known as: inflammation of the kidney that involves the glomeruli?
Which part of the renal tubules function in reabsorption and secretion?
Proximal convulated tubule (PCT)
Which part of the renal tubules are confined to the cortex?
Proximal convulated tubule (PCT)
Which part of the renal tubule are the descending and ascending limbs?
Loop of Henle
Are the ascending or descending Loop of Henle usually thin segements?
Are the ascending or descending Loop of Henle freely permeable to water?
Are the ascending or descending Loop of Henle usually the thick segments?
Which renal tubules function more in secretion than reabsortion?
Distal convulated tubule (DCT)
Which renal tubules are confined to the cortex?
Distal convulated tubule (DCT)
Which part of the kidneys receive filtrate from many nephrons?
Which part of the kidneys fuse together to deliver urine through papillae into minor calyces?
Which type of nephrons make up 85% of nephrons?
Which type of nephrons are almost entirely in the cortex?
Which type of nephrons make up 15% of nephrons?
Which type of nephrons are long loops of Henle that deeply invade the medulla?
Which type of nephrons are important in the production of concentrated urine?
Do afferent arterioles enter or exit the glomerulus?
Do efferent arterioles enter or exit the glomerulus?
Which structures in the nephron capillary beds are specialized for filteration?
In the glomerulus is blood pressure high OR low?
High, because afferent arterioles are larger in diameter than efferent arterioles
In glomerulus, blood pressure is (1. high/low), because afferent arterioles are (2. smaller/ larger) in diamter than efferent arterioles.
Are arterioles in the nephron capillary beds, high-resisitance or low-resistance vessels?
Which structures in the nephron capillary beds are low-pressure, porous capillaries adapted for absorption?
Which capillaries in the nephron capillary beds, arise from efferent arterioles?
Do peritubular capillaries arise from afferent or efferent artierioles?
Which capillaries in the nephron capillary beds cling to adjacent renal tubules in the renal cortex?
What do the peritubular capillaries empty into?
Which capillaries of the nephron capillary beds empty into venules?
Which structures of the nephron capillary beds are long vessels parallel to long loops of Henle?
Which structures of the nephron capillary beds arise from efferent arterioles of juxtamedullary nephrons?
Which strutures of the nephron capillary beds function in the formation of concentrated urine?
How many juxtaglomerular apparati are there per nephron?
One per nephron
Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) are important in regulation of what 2 things?
What in the kidneys is the porous membrane between the blood and the capsular space?
What in the kidneys allows passage of water and solutes smaller than most plasma proteins?
The filteration memebrane consists of 3 structures, which of them is of the glomerular capillaries?
The filteration memebrane consists of 3 structures, which of them is of the glomerular capsule (podocytes with foot processes and filteration slits)?
The filteration memebrane consists of 3 structures, which of them is gel-like and fused basal laminae of the two other layers?
The kidneys filter the body's entire plasma volume how many times each day?
60 times each day
What in the kidneys is defined as blood plasma minus proteins?
Urine is what % of total filterate?
What in the kidneys contains metabolic wastes and unneeded substances?
What are the 3 mechanisms of urine formation?
2.Tubular reabsorption (tubules to the blood).
3.Tubular secretion (blood to tubules).
During which mechanism of urine formation does all glucose and amino acids, 99% of water, salts, and other compnents return to the blood?
Tubular reabsorption (tubules to blood)
During which mechanism of urine formation is the reverse of reabsorption and is a selective addition to urine?
Tubular secretion (blood to tubules)
What is defined as the pressure responsible for filterate formation?
Net Filteration Pressure (NFP)
What is defined as the volume of filterate formed per minute by the kidneys?
Glomerular Filteration Rate (GFR)
What 3 things is the glomerular filteration rate governed by (and directly proportional to)?
Total surface area available for filteration.
Filteration membrane permeability.
Net Filteration Pressure.
How many types of mechanisms is GFR (glomerular filteration rate) controlled by?
Which of the 2 mechanisms that glomerular filteration rate is controlled by, acts locally within the kidney?
Which of the 2 mechanisms that glomerular filteration rate is controlled by, is also known as renal autoregulation?
Which of the 2 mechanisms that glomerular filteration rate is controlled by, are nervous and endocrine mechanisms that maintain blood pressure, but affect kidney function?
Which of the 2 mechanisms that glomerular filteration rate is controlled by, includes the myogenic mechanism?
Which mechanism that is controlled by intrinsic controls are regulated by smooth muscle in response to stretch?
If blood pressure increases, does this cause constriction or dialation of afferent arterioles?
Does contriction or dialtion of afferent arterioles protect glomeruli from damaging high blood pressures?
Does the increase or decrease of blood pressure help maintain normal gloermular filteration rate (GFR)?
Does the constriction or dialation of afferent arterioles help maintain normal glomerular filteration rate (GFR)?
If blood pressure decreases, does this cause constriction or dialation of afferent arterioles?
In intrinsic controls of the regulation of glomerular filteration, which mechanism plays a role in blood pressure?
Does fulterate flow rate increase in the tubule if GFR increases OR decreases?
During intrinsic controls (tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism), because of insuffient time for reabsorption, will NaCl concentration be high OR low?
In extrinsic controls of the regulation of glomerular filteration, under normal conditions at rest, are renal blood vessels contricted OR dialted?
Under extreme stress, which hormone is released by the sympathetic nervous system and is this an intrinstic or extrinstic control?
Norepinephrone and it is an extrinsic control
Under extreme stress, which hormone is released by the adrenal medulla? And is this an intrinic or extrinsic control?
Epinephrine, extrinsic control
Do norepinephrine and epinephrine cause constriction OR dialation of afferent arterioles, inhibiting filteration and triggering the release of renin?
Is the renin-angiotensin mechansim part of the intrinsic or extrinisc controls?
Angiotensinogen (a plasma globulin) is converted into angiotensin I by the release of what?
Does angiotensin II constrict or dialate arteriole smooth muscle? Does it cause blood pressure to rise or drop?
1Constricts arteriolar smooth muscle, causing blood pressure to rise
What does angiotensin II stimulate the reabsorption of?
Angiotensin II stimulates the reabsorption of Na+, which triggers the adrenal cortex to release what?
Angiotensin II stimulates the hypothalamus to release what and activate which center?
Stimulates the hypothalamus to release ADH and activates the thirst center
Angiotensin II (1. contricts/dialtaes) efferent arterioles, (2. increasing/decreasing) peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressure (pressure exerted by a fluid) and (3. increasing/ decreasing) fluid reabsorption.
Angiotensin II causes glomerular mesangial cells to contract, ( 1. increasing/ decreasing) the surface area available for filteration.
Reabsorption of which element provides the energy and the means for reabsorbing most other substances?
Are organic nutrients reabsorbed by primary or secondary active transport?
What reflects the number of carriers in the renal tubules available?
Transport maximum (Tm)
Organic nutirents are reabsorbed by secondary active transport. Excess of a substance is secreted when carriers are saturated OR unsaturated?
What is water reabsorbed by and aided by?
Reabsorbed by Osmosis.
Aided by water-filled pores called aquaporins
How are cations and fat soluble substances reabsorbed?
In the kidneys, what is the sire of most reabsorption?
Proximal convulated tubule
In the proximal convulated tubule sodium and water make what % of reabsorption?
The proximal convulated tubules are the site of most reabsorption of what?
65% of Na+ and water.
In the loop of Henle, what does the descending limb reabsorb?
In the loop of Henle, what does the ascending limb reabsorb?