A&P 202 Study Guide Exam 4

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A&P 202 Study Guide Exam 4
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2012-11-12 17:45:59
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Urinary System
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Urinary System
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  1. Which organs are the major excretory organs?
    Kidneys
  2. Which organ serves as a temporary storage reservoir for urine?
    Urinary Bladder
  3. Which organ transports urine from the kidneys to the bladder?
    Ureters
  4. Which organ transports urine out of the body?
    Urethra
  5. How many liters of fluid do the kidneys filter from the body daily?
    200 Liters
  6. The kidneys function in the removal of what 3 things from the blood?
    • Toxins
    • Metabolic wastes
    • Excess ions
  7. The kidneys function in the regulation of what 3 things?
    • Blood volume
    • Chemical composition
    • pH
  8. During prolonged fasting, what process do the kidneys function  in?
    Gluconeogenesis
  9. The kidneys have endocrine functions. Which hormone plays a role in regulation of blood pressure and kidney function?
    Renin
  10. The kidneys have endocrine functions. Which hormone plays a role in regulation of RBC production?
    Erythropoietin
  11. They kidneys function to activate which vitamin?
    Vitamin D
  12. Which kidney is lower, the right or the left?
    Right kidney is lower than the left
  13. Which 4 body structures enter and exit at the hilum of the kidney?
    • Ureters
    • renal Blood Vessels
    • Lymphatics
    • Nerves
  14. What is the outer covering of the kidney called?
    Fibrous capsule
  15. Which part of the kidney prevents spread and infection to the kidney?
    Fibrous capsule
  16. What is the granular superficial region of the kidney called?
    Renal cortex
  17. What is the cone-shaped medullary (renal) pyraminds seperated by renal columns of the kidney called?
    Renal Medulla
  18. On the kidney, what is the tip of the pyramid called that releases urine into the minor calyx?
    Papilla
  19. What is the funnyl shaped tube within the kidney called?
    The renal pelvis
  20. What are the branching channels of the renal pelvis that collect urine from the minor calyces called?
    Major calyces
  21. What are the branching channels of the renal pelvis that empty urine into the pelvis called?
    major calyces
  22. Urine flows from the renal pelvis to the _____.
    Ureter
  23. What are the structural and functional units that form urine?
    Nephrons
  24. Aprox. how many nephrons are there per kidney?
    ~ 1 million per kidney
  25. There are 2 main parts of the nephrons. Which part are a tuft of capillaries?
    Glomerulus
  26. There are 2 main parts of nephrons, which part begins as a cup-shaped glomerular (bowman's) capusule surrounding the glomerulus?
    Renal tubule
  27. Which two structures is the renal corpuscle made up of?
    Glomerulus + its glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
  28. Which part of the renal capsule is made up of fenestrated flomerular capillaries?
    Glomerulus
  29. Which part of the renal corpuscle allows filterate to pass from plasma into the glomerular capsule?
    Glomerulus
  30. Which is known as: inflammation of the kidney that involves the glomeruli?
    Gomerulonephritis
  31. Which part of the renal tubules function in reabsorption and secretion?
    Proximal convulated tubule (PCT)
  32. Which part of the renal tubules are confined to the cortex?
    Proximal convulated tubule (PCT)
  33. Which part of the renal tubule are the descending and ascending limbs?
    Loop of Henle
  34. Are the ascending or descending Loop of Henle usually thin segements?
    Descending
  35. Are the ascending or descending Loop of Henle freely permeable to water?
    Descending
  36. Are the ascending or descending Loop of Henle usually the thick segments?
    Ascending
  37. Which renal tubules function more in secretion than reabsortion?
    Distal convulated tubule (DCT)
  38. Which renal tubules are confined to the cortex?
    Distal convulated tubule (DCT)
  39. Which part of the kidneys receive filtrate from many nephrons?
    Collecting Ducts
  40. Which part of the kidneys fuse together to deliver urine through papillae into minor calyces?
    Collecting ducts
  41. Which type of nephrons make up 85% of nephrons?
    Cortical nephrons
  42. Which type of nephrons are almost entirely in the cortex?
    Cortical nephrons
  43. Which type of nephrons make up 15% of nephrons?
    Juxtamedullary nephrons
  44. Which type of nephrons are long loops of Henle that deeply invade the medulla?
    Juxtamedullary nephrons
  45. Which type of nephrons are important in the production of concentrated urine?
    Juxtamedullary nephrons
  46. Do afferent arterioles enter or exit the glomerulus?
    Enter
  47. Do efferent arterioles enter or exit the glomerulus?
    Exit
  48. Which structures in the nephron capillary beds are specialized for filteration?
    Glomerulus
  49. In the glomerulus is blood pressure high OR low?
    High, because afferent arterioles are larger in diameter than efferent arterioles
  50. In glomerulus, blood pressure is (1. high/low), because afferent arterioles are (2. smaller/ larger) in diamter than efferent arterioles.
    • 1. High
    • 2. Larger
  51. Are arterioles in the nephron capillary beds, high-resisitance or low-resistance vessels?
    High-resistance
  52. Which structures in the nephron capillary beds are low-pressure, porous capillaries adapted for absorption?
    Peritubular capillaries
  53. Which capillaries in the nephron capillary beds, arise from efferent arterioles?
    Peritubular capillaries
  54. Do peritubular capillaries arise from afferent or efferent artierioles?
    Efferent arterioles
  55. Which capillaries in the nephron capillary beds cling to adjacent renal tubules in the renal cortex?
    Peritubular capillaries
  56. What do the peritubular capillaries empty into?
    Venules
  57. Which capillaries of the nephron capillary beds empty into venules?
    Peritubular capillaries
  58. Which structures of the nephron capillary beds are long vessels parallel to long loops of Henle?
    Vasa recta
  59. Which structures of the nephron capillary beds arise from efferent arterioles of juxtamedullary nephrons?
    Vasa recta
  60. Which strutures of the nephron capillary beds function in the formation of concentrated urine?
    Vasa recta
  61. How many juxtaglomerular apparati are there per nephron?
    One per nephron
  62. Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) are important in regulation of what 2 things?
    • Filterate formation
    • Blood pressure
  63. What in the kidneys is the porous membrane between the blood and the capsular space?
    Filteration membrane
  64. What in the kidneys allows passage of water and solutes smaller than most plasma proteins?
    Filteration membrane
  65. The filteration memebrane consists of 3 structures, which of them is of the glomerular capillaries?
    Fenestrated endothelium
  66. The filteration memebrane consists of 3 structures, which of them is of the glomerular capsule (podocytes with foot processes and filteration slits)?
    Visceral membrane
  67. The filteration memebrane consists of 3 structures, which of them is gel-like and fused basal laminae of the two other layers?
    Basement membrane
  68. The kidneys filter the body's entire plasma volume how many times each day?
    60 times each day
  69. What in the kidneys is defined as blood plasma minus proteins?
    Filterate
  70. Urine is what % of total filterate?
    <1%
  71. What in the kidneys contains metabolic wastes and unneeded substances?
    Urine
  72. What are the 3 mechanisms of urine formation?
    • 1.Glomerular filteration.
    • 2.Tubular reabsorption (tubules to the blood).
    • 3.Tubular secretion (blood to tubules).
  73. During which mechanism of urine formation does all glucose and amino acids, 99% of water, salts, and other compnents return to the blood?
    Tubular reabsorption (tubules to blood)
  74. During which mechanism of urine formation is the reverse of reabsorption and is a selective addition to urine?
    Tubular secretion (blood to tubules)
  75. What is defined as the pressure responsible for filterate formation?
    Net Filteration Pressure (NFP)
  76. What is defined as the volume of filterate formed per minute by the kidneys?
    Glomerular Filteration Rate (GFR)
  77. What 3 things is the glomerular filteration rate governed by (and directly proportional to)?
    • Total surface area available for filteration.
    • Filteration membrane permeability.
    • Net Filteration Pressure.
  78. How many types of mechanisms is GFR (glomerular filteration rate) controlled by?
    2
  79. Which of the 2 mechanisms that glomerular filteration rate is controlled by, acts locally within the kidney?
    Intrinsic controls
  80. Which of the 2 mechanisms that glomerular filteration rate is controlled by, is also known as renal autoregulation?
    Intrinsic controls
  81. Which of the 2 mechanisms that glomerular filteration rate is controlled by, are nervous and endocrine mechanisms that maintain blood pressure, but affect kidney function?
    Extrinsic controls
  82. Which of the 2 mechanisms that glomerular filteration rate is controlled by, includes the myogenic mechanism?
    Intrinsic controls
  83. Which mechanism that is controlled by intrinsic controls are regulated by smooth muscle in response to stretch?
    Myogenic mechanism
  84. If blood pressure increases, does this cause constriction or dialation of afferent arterioles?
    Constriction
  85. Does contriction or dialtion of afferent arterioles protect glomeruli from damaging high blood pressures?
    Constriction
  86. Does the increase or decrease of blood pressure help maintain normal gloermular filteration rate (GFR)?
    BOTH
  87. Does the constriction or dialation of afferent arterioles help maintain normal glomerular filteration rate (GFR)?
    BOTH
  88. If blood pressure decreases, does this cause constriction or dialation of afferent arterioles?
    Dialtion
  89. In intrinsic controls of the regulation of glomerular filteration, which mechanism plays a role in blood pressure?
    Myogenic mechanism
  90. Does fulterate flow rate increase in the tubule if GFR increases OR decreases?
    Increases
  91. During intrinsic controls (tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism), because of insuffient time for reabsorption, will NaCl concentration be high OR low?
    High
  92. In extrinsic controls of the regulation of glomerular filteration, under normal conditions at rest, are renal blood vessels contricted OR dialted?
    Dialtaed
  93. Under extreme stress, which hormone is released by the sympathetic nervous system and is this an intrinstic or extrinstic control?
    Norepinephrone and it is an extrinsic control
  94. Under extreme stress, which hormone is released by the adrenal medulla? And is this an intrinic or extrinsic control?
    Epinephrine, extrinsic control
  95. Do norepinephrine and epinephrine cause constriction OR dialation of afferent arterioles, inhibiting filteration and triggering the release of renin?
    Constriction
  96. Is the renin-angiotensin mechansim part of the intrinsic or extrinisc controls?
    Extrinsic
  97. Angiotensinogen (a plasma globulin) is converted into angiotensin I by the release of what?
    Renin
  98. Does angiotensin II constrict or dialate arteriole smooth muscle? Does it cause blood pressure to rise or drop?
    1Constricts arteriolar smooth muscle, causing blood pressure to rise 
  99. What does angiotensin II stimulate the reabsorption of?
    Na+ (sodium)
  100. Angiotensin II stimulates the reabsorption of Na+, which triggers the adrenal cortex to release what?
    Aldosterone
  101. Angiotensin II stimulates the hypothalamus to release what and activate which center?
    Stimulates the hypothalamus to release ADH and activates the thirst center
  102. Angiotensin II (1. contricts/dialtaes) efferent arterioles, (2. increasing/decreasing) peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressure (pressure exerted by a fluid) and (3. increasing/ decreasing) fluid reabsorption.
    • 1. constricts
    • 2. decreasing
    • 3. increasing
  103. Angiotensin II causes glomerular mesangial cells to contract, ( 1. increasing/ decreasing) the surface area available for filteration.
    Decreasing.
  104. Reabsorption of which element provides the energy and the means for reabsorbing most other substances?
    Na+
  105. Are organic nutrients reabsorbed by primary or secondary active transport?
    Secondary
  106. What reflects the number of carriers in the renal tubules available?
    Transport maximum (Tm)
  107. Organic nutirents are reabsorbed by secondary active transport. Excess of a substance is secreted when carriers are saturated OR unsaturated?
    Saturated
  108. What is water reabsorbed by and aided by?
    • Reabsorbed by Osmosis.
    • Aided by water-filled pores called aquaporins
  109. How are cations and fat soluble substances reabsorbed?
    By diffusion
  110. In the kidneys, what is the sire of most reabsorption?
    Proximal convulated tubule
  111. In the proximal convulated tubule sodium and water make what % of reabsorption?
    65%
  112. The proximal convulated tubules are the site of most reabsorption of what?
    • 65% of Na+ and water.
    • All nutrients
    • Ions
    • Small proteins
  113. In the loop of Henle, what does the descending limb reabsorb?
    Water
  114. In the loop of Henle, what does the ascending limb reabsorb?
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chlorine

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