U.S. History Test 2
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Articles of Confederation
- Firm league of friendship among states
- Each state has one vote
- Union shall be perpetual
- Alterations by congress and confirmation by legislatures of every state
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
- Every territory fell subject to a governor, a secretary and three judges
- any territory in a region had greater than 5000 free male adults, could choose an assemble, and Congress would name any governing council.
A revolt of farmers and other disgruntled people of Mass. brought on by economic depression, lack of hard currency needed to pay debts.
- Distrusted centralization of federal power in the New Constitution
- Favored more autonomy for states, as in Articles of Confederation
- charged that the constitution was an illegal document (did not follow Articles amendment process)
- criticized Constitution for lacking a bill of rights
Collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay advocating for the federalist point of view on the constitution.
- Virginia 1776- 2 Branches of Legislature; Governor, privy council, judges chosen by legislature.
- Pennsylvania- Unicameral legislature; chose president and council, who choose judges; voters all male freedmen age 21.
- Massachusetts-Constitutional Convention; House of Representatives (apportioned according to town size); Senate(represented property); chosen by all freedmen age 21 with an annual income of 3 pounds; governor chosen by the people.
Bill of Rights
Amendments of the Constution that protected certain fundamental individual rights:
- cement the interests of the wealthy elite with the U. S. government
- Wanted to consolidate and strengthen central government
- Appealed to desire for stability (after Shays)
- Federalist patriotism
- National security
- French vessels captured U. S. ships
- French officials demanded a bribe from U. S. diplomats
- Affair shut down Republican protests; U. S. and France fought undeclared war for 2 years
Alien and Sedition Acts
- Alien act allowed the president to deport any "dangerous alien" at his discretion.
- Alien enemies act authorized the president in time of declared war to expel or imprison enemy aliens at will
- Sedition Act defined as a high misdemeanor any conspiracy against legal measures of the govt and forbade any type of seditous acts against the govt.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Resolutions written against the Alien and Sedition Acts calling them unconstituional.
1801 Jefferson refused to pay Tripoli $225,000 plus $25000 a year for protection; Tripoli declared war on the U.S.; Jefferson sent ships to the Mediterranean; Tunis and Algiers broke with Tripoli
Marbury v. Madison
Case in which the supreme court declared the right to determine unconstitutionality
- Jefferson bought Louisiana territory from France for 15 million
- Used a broad (federalist) interpretation of the constituion in order to acquire the land to bypass a constitutional amendment
- Sent Lewis and Clark on an expedition
British ship Leopard accosted Chesapeake and when the captain refused a search they opened fire on the ship. 4 men from Britain were taken and one was hanged for desertion, leading to the War of 1812.
Famous battle between the Indians led by Tecumseh who hoped to form an Indian Confederation. Confirmed suspicions that British agents were riling up the Indians.
Second Barbary War
- 1807 Algiers resumed taking U. S. ships and
- hostages; U. S. unable to respond until after the War of 1812
- The British expelled the U. S. Navy from the
- Mediterranean during the War of 1812.
- June/July 1815 Stephen Decatur captured two
- Algerian ships and signed a treaty with the Dey of Algiers, then negotiated with Tunis and
- The Dey of Algiers repudiated the treaty; 1816
- British and Dutch bombarded Algiers and the treaty was resumed. (France colonized Algeria in 1830.)
Bank of the U.S.
A national bank of the U.S. that was located in Philadelphia tasked with running all of the nation's fiscal policies.
Deal proposed by Kentucky senator Henry Clay to resolve the slave/free imbalance in Congress that would result from Missouri's admission as a slave state; in the compromise of March 20, 1820. Maine's admission as a free state offset Missouri, and slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the louisiana Territory north of the southern border of Missouri.
McCulloch v. Maryland
A case in which Maryland tried to impede operation of the Second U.S. bank by taxing all notes brought in by non-Maryland banks. Supreme court ruled this unconsitutional and removed the tax.
Foreign policy proclaimed the American continenets were no longer open to colonization and America would be neutral in European affairs.
A vote in the House of Representatives decided the deadlocked presidential election of 1824 in favor of John Quincy Adams, who Speaker of the House Henry Clay had supported. Afterward, Adams appointed Clay secretary of state. Andrew Jackson charged Clay with having made a "corrupt bargain" with Adams that gave Adams the presidency and Clay a place in his administration. There was no evidence of such a deal, but it was widely believed.
- Leader-Andrew Jackson
- responsive to the will of the majority
- favored local issues
- strict construction of the constitution
- emphasized individuality and broad participation in voting and office holding
- saw the spoils system as a right of incumbency
- opposed to centralized government structures such as national banks.
- Leaders-John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay
- Inspired by Warhawks: Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John Calhoun
- Inherited some of old Federalist agenda: National priorities for improvements in transportation, commerce like British Whigs, opposed monarchism ("king Andrew")
- Appealed to financial elites, especially in the Northeast
Concept of invalidation of a federal law within the borders of a state; first expounded in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, cited by S. Carolina in its Ordinance of Nullification of the Tariff of Abominations, used by sourther states to explain their secession from the Union
Served in both the House of Representatives and the Senate for S. Carolina before becoming secretary of war under President Monroe and then John Quincy Adam's vice president. He introduced the bill for the second national bank to Congress and led the minority of southerners who voted for the Tariff of 1816. Later, chose to oppose the tariffs.
Speaker of the House, promoted Economic nationalism and the rapid development of western states and territories. Formulated the "second" missouri Compromise, which denied the Missouri state legislature the power to exclude the rights of free blacks and mulattos.
Trail of Tears
Cherokees' own term for their forced march from the southern Appalachians to Indian lands (Oklahoma) of 15,000 forced to march, 4,000 died along the way.
Panic of 1837
Financial collapse brought on by sharply falling cotton prices, declining demand for American exports, and reckless western land speculation
- 1824 GA dispossessed Creeks
- 1830 GA legislature extended state laws to Cherokee lands (gold rush)
- Jackson: removal would be “voluntary”
- Grass-roots opposition: Catharine Beecher
- May 28, 1830 Jackson signed Indian Removal Act; Slave states in House: 61-15 Free states: 41-82
- Davy Crockett (TN): The bill was “oppression with a vengeance.”
- Choctaw removal MS: bribes cost $5 million
- 1831 Jackson announced end of enforcement of federal law that protected Indian lands
- machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, a job that otherwise must be performed painstakingly by hand.
- Invented by Eli Whitney
- apprentice to overseer in Arkwright factory system
- Accepted U. S. Bounties for British technology
- Disguised as a farmer, sailed to U. S.
- 1790—built an Arkwright water frame from memory, opened mill in Pawtucket, RI
Girs ages 15-25 who worked at mills that spun and weaved cloth together. These communities proveded the young women employees with meals, a boardinghouse, moral discipline, and educational and cultural opportunities.
Anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic feeling in the 1830s through the 1850s. the largest group was New York's Order of the Star Spangled Banner, which expanded in the American, or Know-Nothing party.
Shaker Craftsman Model
- Thrived 1810-1850
- Communal society
- Shared duties
- Hand-crafted products
Late eighteenth century liberal offshoot of the New England Congregationalist church; Unitariaism professed the oneness of God and goodness of rational man
Second Geat Awakening
Religious revival movement of the early decades of the nineteenth century, in reaction to the growth of secularism and rationalist religions; began the predominance of the Baptist and Medthodist churches.
Burned over district
Area of western-NY strongly influenced by the revivalist fervor of the Second Great Awakening; Disciples of Christ and Mormons are among the many sects that trace their roots to the phenomenon.
Founder of the Mormon movement in which he claimed the angel Moroni showed him the location of several gold tablets on which the Book of Mormon was written.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
As a leader of the transcendentalist movement, he wrote poems, essays, and speeches that discussed the sacredness of nature, optimism, self-relience, and the unlimited potential of the individual. He wanted to transcend the limitations of inherited conventions, and rationalism to reach the inner reesses of the self.
Philosophy of a small group of mid-nineteenth century New England writers and thinkers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller; they stressed "plain living and high thinking"
moderation in action, thought, or feeling; restraint.
Fist women's rights meeting and the genesis of the women's suffrage movement; held in July 1848 in a church in Seneca Falls, New York, by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Coffin Mott.
Founded by Mother Ann Lee Stanley in England, the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing settled in Watervliet, New York, in 1774 and subsequently established eighteen additional communes in the Northeast, Indiana, and Kentucky
- Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)
- Walden (1854)
- Civil Disobedience (1849)
- Nathaniel Hawthorne
- Scarlet Letter (1850)
- Herman Melville
- Moby Dick (1851)
- Walt Whitman
- Leaves of Grass (1855)
- Believe that the millennium (thousand years of peace and
- prosperity) will occur after a time of trouble and Christ’s second coming
- Pietism rooted in Calvinism
- Motivation to public action—withdrawal from churches
- Millerites were antisectarian
- Their theology varied widely
- Like other evangelicals, Miller was a revivalist
- Miller expected other Christians to welcome him with open arms
- Unlike other innovative groups (Mormons, Shakers, etc.) millerism was a mass movement
- Estimated number of Millerites: 10,000 to 1 million
President who opposed the whigs. Worked to annex the state of Texas.
American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the anti-slaveryRepublican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, that era's penny press accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder. He is sometimes called The Great Pathfinder. He retired from the military and moved to the new territory California, after leading a fourth expedition which cost ten lives seeking a rail route over the mountains around the 38th parallel in the winter of 1849.
Established the first colony of Americans in Texas, which eventually attracted 2000 people
Siege in the Texas War for Independaence of 1836, in which the San Antonio mission fell to the Mexicans. Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie were among the courageous defenders.
49th parallel (Oregon boundary)
Issue for Oregon Territory between Britian and U.S. The Mexican war caused Polk to make a compromise and give some land to what is now Canada.
During the Mexican War, he scored two quick victories against Mexico, which made him very popular in America. President Polk chose him as the commander in charge of the war. However, after he was not put in charge of the campaign to capture Mexico City, he chose to return home. Later he used his popularity from his military victories to be elected the president as a member of the Whig Party.
Battle in Mexican war by Zachary Taylor
During the Mexican war, he was the American general who captured Mexico City, which ended the war. Using his popularity from his military success, he ran as a Whig party candidate for President
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
peace treaty between the U.S. and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–48). With the defeat of its army and the fall of the capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war. The treaty called for the United States to pay $15 million to Mexico and pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico up to $3.25 million. Most important it gave the United States the Rio Grande boundary for Texas, and gave the U.S. ownership of California, and a large area comprising New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado.
- 1752 Englishman Biship Berkeley predicts America will be the 5th monarchy of prophecy in the book of Daniel.
- 1839 journalist John L. O'Sullivan states that the U.S. is divinely destined to occupy territory all the way to the Pacific.
- Other wrters and visual artists reinforce this belief
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