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2012-11-11 18:09:06
PCOM Medical Terminology Final

PCOM Medterm Final WEEKS7-9
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  1. [BLANK] is caused by abnormal and excessive growth of cells in the boy, which eventually begin to rob surrounding cells or issue of needed nutrients.
  2. Process by which Cancer cells develop their own blood supply.
  3. When Cancer cells travel via the bloodstream or lymph nodes.
  4. Most deadly Cancer in Man
    • Colrectal
    • Lung
  5. Most Deadly cancer in Woman
    • Lung
    • Breast
    • Colrectal
  6. Neoplasms
    Tumors, new growths that arise fro normal tissue
  7. 4 Criteria for Benign tumors
    • Organzed and specialized, Differentiated
    • Slow Growing
    • Encapsulated and noninvasion
    • Nonmetastatic
  8. 4 Criteria for Malignant Tumors
    • Undifferentiated (anaplastic): cells revert back to emybryonic type
    • Rapidly multiplying
    • Invasive and infiltrative
    • metastastic
  9. [BLANK] causes cells to lose normal function programming and reproduce continuously.
    DNA Damage
  10. Apoptosis
    Programmed cell death
  11. Sources of DNA damage (Carcinogens):
    • Chemicals
    • Drugs
    • Tobacco
    • Radiation
    • Viruses
  12. Oncogenes
    DNA whose activation is associated with turning normal cells to cancerous cells.
  13. Causes of colon, breast and kidney cancer not caused by Carcinogens
    Inherited Factors via genetic defect
  14. Histogenesis
    Tissue types which tumor cells arise
  15. What are the 3 types of tissue from which tumors arise
    • Carcinoma: Largest group, Epithelial tissue
    • Sarcoma: connective tissue (bone, fat, muscle, cartilage, bone marrow, lymphatic cells)
    • Mix-Tissue tumors: tissue capable of differentiating into both epithelia and connective tissue (kidney, ovaries, testes)
  16. Within Sarcomas, what are 2 types of blood-forming tumors
    • Leukemia: from bone marrow
    • Lymphoma: from lympathic system
  17. Gliomas and Neuroblastomas
    Sarcomas from the connective tissue within the brain and embryonic tissue of the Nervous System
  18. Tumor's Grade
    • Degree of maturity or differentiation
    • Rated: I-IV
  19. Tumor's Staging
    • Extent of spread within the body
    • Rated: 0-4
  20. Cancer Treatment: Surgery
    Surgical excision if it hasn't metastasized
  21. Cauterized
    Process of burnig tissue to destroy tumor
  22. Cryosurgery
    Use of subfreezing temps to destroy tumor
  23. Enbloc Resection
    Tumor is remobed along with a large area of surrounding tissue containing lymph nodes
  24. Excisional Biopsy
    Removal of tumor and margin of normal tissue
  25. Exenteration
    removal of tumor along with the organ of origin
  26. Fulgeration
    Use of electric sparks to destroy tumor
  27. Radiation Thearopy
    • Use of ionized ratiation delivered to tumor tissue
    • Side effects: Alopecia, fibrosis, mucositis, myelosppression, nausea, pneumonitis, xerostomia (Dry mouth)
  28. Chemotherapy
    • Treatment of tumor using durgs, used in combo with surgery and radiation.
    • Causes DNA damage to tumor cells.  (tumor cells are less able to survive DNA damage.
    • Durg therapy continue until patient achieves remission or abscence of disease
  29. Branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental illness.
  30. Psychiatrist
    Recieves MD training, able to perscribe drugs and psychotherapy.
  31. Psychologist
    Non-MD.  Trained in methods of psychotherapy.  Acedemic title.  Cannot perscribe drugs.
  32. Amnesia
    Loss of memory
  33. Anxiety
    degree of uneasiness, appreehension or dread often accompanied by palpitations tightness in chest, breathlessness, choking
  34. Apathy
    absence of emotion, lack of interest
  35. Compulsion
    uncontrolled urge to perform an act repeatedly
  36. Conversion
    Anxiety becomes bodily sumptom, such as blindness, deafness or paralysis.  No physical basis for illness.
  37. Delusion
    a fixed falsed belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning
  38. Dessociation
    Unforfortable feelings are seperated fro mtheir real object.  To avoid distress, feelings are redirected toward second object or behavior.
  39. Dysphoria
    Sadness, hopeless, depressive mood or feeling "LOW"
  40. Euphoria
    Exaggerated feeling of well-being "high"
  41. Hallucination
    false or unreal sensory perception
  42. Labile
    Variable, Rapid emotional change
  43. Mannia
    Elation or irritability, distractibility, hperactiviity, talkativeness
  44. Mathsum
    Little speech and negative or minimal thought
  45. Obssession
    an involuntary, persistent idea or emotion (EX: Pyromania)
  46. Paranoia
    Overly suspeicious system of thinking.
  47. ID
    unconcious instincts
  48. EGO
    • Central coordinating branch of personality
    • Mediate between ID and the ouside world
    • The "self"
  49. Superego
    Internalized conscience and moral part of personality
  50. Anxiety Disorder
    • unpleasant tension, distress, troubled feelings, avoidance behavior.
    • OCD
    • PTSD
  51. Delurium and Dementia
    • Abnormal mental process of thinking, perception, reasoning and judment
    • intoxication
    • head trauma
    • Alzheimer's
    • Parkinsons's
  52. dissociative disorder
    Breakdown in memory, identity or perception
  53. Eating disorder
    Anorexia and bulimia
  54. Mood Disorder
    • Prolonged emotion that domiantes a person
    • bipolar
    • depression
    • SAD
  55. Personality Disorder
    Established patterns of thinking which becomes inflexible and rigid causing impairment of function and conflict with others.
  56. Pervasive Childhood Disorder
    • Delayed development of social and communication skills
    • Autism
  57. Schizophrenia
    • Withdrawl from reality into inner world
    • Delusions
    • Hallucinations
    • Flat affect
    • Thought disorder
  58. Sexual and Gender Disorder
    • Parapiphilias: abnormal attractions
    • Sexual dysfunctions
    • Transsexual identification
  59. somatoform disorder
    • mental conflicts are expressed as physical symptoms
    • Hypochondriasis
    • conversoin disorder
  60. Psychotherapy
    • Using psychological techniques
    • Talk therapy
  61. Electrocanvulsive therapy for Mental Disease
    • current produces change in brain wave patterns
    • Used when rapid response is needed
  62. Drug Therapy for Mental Disease
    • anti-Anxiety agents
    • Antidepressants
  63. [Blank] from the Greek hormon meaning "Urging On"
  64. Endocrine Gladns
    Secrets hormones directly into blood stream, no ducts
  65. Exocrine Glands
    Secrets into ducts (tears, sweat, milk, saliva)
  66. Pituitary Gland
    • Anterior lobe: growth hormone, thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), prolactin, ACTH, SFH, LH
    • Posterior Lobe: Antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
  67. Thyroid Gland
    Calcitonin: Maintain normal metabolism and bone uptake of Ca.  Stimulates the uptake of Ca by bone.
  68. Parathyroid
    Parathyroid Hormone: moves Ca from bone into Blood
  69. Adrenal Glands
    • Top of Kidney
    • Glucocorticoids (Cortisol): regulate sugars, fats and proteins
    • Aldosterone: Regualte electrolytes (bloodpressure, volume)
    • Sex hormones: influence secondary sex charcteristics
    • Catecholamines: flight or fight
  70. Pancreas
    • Insulin: convert excess glucose to glycogen for storage
    • Glucagon: raises blood sugar by promoting conversion of glycogen to glucose
  71. Pineal
    Melatonin: biological clock
  72. Thymus
    • Development of immune response in newborns
    • Removed to treat Myasthenia Gravis
  73. Ovaries
    Estrogen and progesterone
  74. Testis
  75. Hyperthroidisum
    • Graves disease
    • Exopthamus
  76. Cushing syndrome
    • Excess cortisol from adrenal ortex
    • From chronic use of steroids
  77. Diabedies Melatus
    • Lack of insulin secretion or resistance to insulin
    • Type 1: autoimmune, antibodies attack pancreatic cells, childhood onset.  Treatment is insulin
    • Type 2: Insulin resistance, adult onset cause by obese, Treat with diet
  78. Diabedies Insipidus
    • Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic horone
    • Polyuria (Excessive urine)
    • Polydipsia (Excessive thirst)
  79. Acomegaly
    • hypersecretin of Growth hormone after puperty
    • Enlarged extremities
  80. Giganitism
    • Hypersecretion of Growth hormone before puberty
    • Overgrowth of body tissue
  81. Fasting Plasma Glucose
    Measures glucose level circulating in blood
  82. Thyroid Function Test
    Measures T3, T4, and TSH in blood stream
  83. Pupil
    Dark Opening
  84. Iris
    Colored portion of eye, constricts and ilates the pupil, regulate the amount of eye entering the eye
  85. Conjunctiva
    Membrane lining the inner surface of eyelids and anterior of eyeball
  86. Cornea
    • Transparaent tissue that extends over the pupil and iris
    • Bends and refracts light on receptor
  87. Sclera
    Opaque white of eye
  88. Choroid
    Dark brown membrane inside sclera
  89. Ciliary body
    • Surrounds the lens
    • Adjust shape and thickness of lense
  90. Accomidation
    • Process of adjusting the shape of lens by the Ciliary body
    • Flatten for distant vision
    • Thicken for close vision
  91. Dwarfism
    Congenical hyposecretion of GH
  92. Lens
  93. anterior chamber
    • contains aqueous humor
    • nourishes and maintins front of eye
  94. vitrious humour
    • mains shape of eyeball
    • further refract light
  95. retina
    thi, delicate nerve layer of eye
  96. Rods
    Ses in reduced light, peripheral vision
  97. Cones
    • Sees in color, brigh lights
    • central vision
  98. Optic Nerve
    Carries nerve impulses fro meye to brain
  99. Optic Disc
    Where optic nerve meets retina "blind spot"
  100. Fovea
    • small oval area adjacent to optic disc
    • Located in the Macula
  101. Optomitrist
    Test eyes and prescribe lenses
  102. Ophthalmologist
    specialist in study of eye
  103. Refraction
    bending of light rays by cornea, lens and fluids of the eye
  104. Astigmatism
    • defective curvature of cornea or lense
    • Blurred vision
  105. Hyperopia
    • Farsightedness
    • eyeball too short or refractive power of lens too weak
  106. Myopia
    • Nearsightedness
    • Eyeball too long or refractive power of lens too strong
  107. Presbyoptia
    • Loss of elasticity of ciliary body
    • Impairs ability to adjust lens for accommodation
  108. Nystagmus
    repetitive, rhymthmic movement of eyes
  109. Cataract
    clouding of the lens
  110. Glaucoma
    • increased intraocular pressure
    • damage to retina and optive nerve
  111. Hordeolum (Stye or sty)
    • Localized purulent
    • Inflammation of sebaceus gland in the eyelid
  112. Macula degeneration
    progressive damage to the macula
  113. Visual Acuity Test
    clarity of vision assess by Snellen Chart at 20ft
  114. LASIK
    laser to correct errors of refraction in eye
  115. Outer Ear
    • Pinna
    • External auditory meatus
  116. Middle Ear
    • Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
    • Eustachian tubes: canal leading from middle ear to pharynx Use to equalized air pressure
  117. Inner Ear
    • auditory nerve
    • Vestibule: for balance
  118. Acute Otitis Media
    Infectin of the middle ear
  119. Tinitis
    Sensati nof noise in ears
  120. Meniere disease
    • accumulation of fluid in inner ear
    • Progressive loss of hearing, headache, nausea, vertigo
  121. Vertigo
    Sensatin of irregular or whirling motion
  122. Functions of Skin
    • Protection and Immune Response
    • Excretion of waste 
    • Gland Secretion (Sebum, sweat)
    • Nerve fibers for sensation
    • Thermoregulation
  123. Epidermis
    • Thin, cellular embrane, keratin
    • Melanin: brown-black pigments made by melanocytes
  124. Dermis
    • Dense, fibrous connective tissue
    • collagen
  125. Subcutaneous
    • Thick
    • Fat tissue
  126. Hair
    tightly fused meshwork of cells with karatin
  127. Nails
    hard keratin
  128. sebaceus gland
    • dermal lyaer of skin
    • Except for palms, soles and lips
    • Ducts
  129. Sweat glands
    • most numerous on palm and soles
    • Opens to pores
  130. Alopecia
    absence of hair
  131. Ecchymosis
  132. Petehiae
    Small, pinpoint hemorrhage
  133. Pyruritus
  134. Utticaria
    Hives, allergic reaction, wheals
  135. Acne
    pustular eruption of skin
  136. Eczema
    inflammatory skin disease.
  137. Impetigo
    • Bacterial imflammation of skin
    • Vesicles, pustules and crusts over lesions
    • Contagiou caused by staphylocci or streptococci
  138. Psoriasis
    • Chronic dermatosis
    • Itchy, scaly red plagues covered by silvery scales
    • Caued by increase rate of grwoth over epidermis
    • Autoimmune disease
  139. Scabies
    • Contagious
    • Parasitic infectin of skin
  140. Systemic lupus erythematosus
    chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in skin, joints and internal organs
  141. Tinea
    • Infection of skin caused by fungus
    • Ringworm and athelete's foot
  142. Vitilligo
    Loss of pigment in area of skin
  143. Calus
    increase growth of epidermis cauesd by friction
  144. Keloid
    • Hypertorphied thickened scar developing after trauma or surgery
    • Normal scar = cicatrix
  145. Keratosis
    thcikened and rough lesions on epidermis associated with aging
  146. Leukoplakia
    • White, thickeend patches on mucous membrane of tonue or cheek
    • Common in precancerous somokers
  147. Nevi(Plural) or Nevis(singular)
    • pigmented lesions of skin
    • moles
  148. verruca
    • epidermal growth caused by virus
    • warts
  149. Basal cell carcinoma
    • malignant tumor of basal cell
    • Fast growing
  150. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Malignant turmor of squamous cells
    • Slow growing
  151. Malignant Meloma
    • Cancerous growth of melanocyes
    • A:Asymmetry
    • B:Border
    • C:Color
    • D:Diameter
    • E:Evolution
  152. Curettage
    use of sharp dermal curette to scrape away a lesion
  153. electrodessication
    (Skin) tissue is destroyed by burning with an electric spark
  154. Mohs micrographic surgery
    thin layers of malignant tissue are removed and examined
  155. skin biopsy
    suspected malignant skin lesions are removed and examined via microscopy
  156. Skin Test
    Substances are injected on skin, testing for allergy
  157. Clear, watery fluids that surrounds cells and flows in system of lumph vessels.

    Contains both lymphocytes and monocytes but no rbc or platelets.
  158. Functions of the Lymphatic system
    • Drainage system fr transporting protein  and fluids that leaked from capillaries back to the blood stream via veins
    • Lymph vessels in the intestines absorb lipids and transport them to the blood stream
    • Defense against foreign organisms
  159. [BLANK] fluid in the spaces between cells.  This fluid becomes lymph wehn it enters lymph capillaries.
    Interstial Fluid
  160. [BLANK] Filters out of capillaries into spaces between cells
  161. Lymph Nodes
    • Clusters of lymph tissue producing lymphocytes and macrophages
    • Macrophages: swallow foreign subs
    • B-Lymphocytes: produces antibodies
    • T-Lymphocytes: attacks bacteria
  162. Movement of lymph fluids
    • Lymph Capillaries to Lymph Vessels to lymph nodes to 2 large ducts in chest.
    • Right lymphatic duct: drains right arm, neck, head, thorax
    • Thoracic duck: drains everything else
  163. Antigens
    Foreign organisms
  164. The Two main organs of lymphatic system and compsed primarly of lymph tissue
    Spleen and Thymus
  165. SPLEEN or THYMUS: located in the LUQ, adjacent to stomach
  166. Functions of Spleen
    • Destroy old RBC
    • Filters microorganisms from blood
    • Activates lymphocytes
    • storage of blood (homeostasis)
  167. Where is the Thymus located
    Upper mediastinum
  168. Function of Thymus
    • helps lymphocytes learn to recognize "self" or "friendly" from antigens during early development
    • Decrease in size and importance as we age.
  169. [BLANK] is the body's ability to resist antigens and toxins
  170. Inherited Immunity
    protection that's present at birth with no prior exposure to antigen.
  171. Acquired Immunited
    Body's ability to for mantibodies after exposure to antigen
  172. [BLANK] group of sign and symptoms associated with suppression of immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasm's and neurological problems. Low T-Cell count
  173. Opportunistic Infection (Thrush)
    invasion of bacteria or parasites which under normal condition could be handled by the immune system.
  174. Allergy
    Abnormal hypersensitivity to antigen
  175. Systemic anaphylactic shock
    extraordinary hypersensitivity reaction to antigen.  Leads to falling bp, shock and respiration distress, edema of larynx.
  176. Lymphoma
    malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue
  177. Hodgins
    Lymphoma of Reed-Sternberg cells
  178. Non-Hodgins
    Lymphoma of non-Reed-Sterberg cells
  179. Multimyeloma
    Tumor of bone marrow cells
  180. Thyoma
    tumor of thymus gland
  181. ELISA
    Test for anti-HIV antibodies
  182. Viral Load
    Measures amound of AIDS Virus
  183. Exosteosis
    bony gwoth on the surface of bone
  184. Supination
    Palm up
  185. Pronation
    Palm down
  186. Kyphosis
    Hympback, posterior curvature of thoracic region
  187. hypoLordosis
    Swayback,curvature of the lumbard
  188. Scolariosis
    Spin column bent abnormally to the side
  189. Talipes
  190. Carpaltunnel syndrom
    compression of median nerve
  191. ganglian cyst
    fluid-filled cyst arise fro joint capsule or tendons
  192. Lime desease
    arthritis, myalgia and lalaise caused by bacterium from tick
  193. muscular dystrophy
    weakness of muscle WITHOUT involvement of nervous system
  194. Myesthemia Gravis
    weakness of muscle cause by weak NERVE impulse
  195. Fibrilmyelgia
    Chronic pain and stiffness of muscles, joints and fibrous tissue.
  196. Bone Scan
    uptake of radioactive substance to detect rumors, infections, inflammation, stress fractures
  197. Electromeyography (EMG)
    recording the strength of muscle contractions
  198. Rheumatoid Factor Test
    Serum test for presence of antibody for rheumatoid arthritis