mental illness 2.txt

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  1. Mental retardation
    • below-average general intellectual function and a lack of skills necessary for daily living
    • deficits in social, motor and language skills and adaptive functioning compared to age-related peers
  2. Causes of mental retardation
    • infection (present at or occurring after birth)
    • chromosomal abnormalities
    • environmental (deprivation syndrome or toxins)
    • inherited metabolic disorders
    • malnutrition
    • trauma
    • idiopathic
  3. Autistic disorder
    • deficits in reciprocal language and social interactions
    • characterized by repetitive behaviors
    • affects 3.4 in 1000
    • affects boys 3-4x more often than girls
    • includes Asperger's syndrome
    • causes unknown
  4. Treatments of autistic disorder
    • applied behavior analysis
    • medications (antidepressants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics)
    • occupational therapy
    • physical therapy
    • speech-language therapy
  5. Tic
    • sudden, rapid and involuntary movement or vocalization
    • may be temporarily suppressed by conscious effort
    • more common in boys than girls
    • exacerbated by stress, anxiety, boredom and/or fatigue
    • symptoms range from mild to severe
    • three types classified by duration and severity
  6. Transient tic disorder
    • presence of one or more tics for at least a month but less than one year
    • majority of tics seen in this disorder are motor tics, though vocal tics may also be present
    • usually does not require treatment
  7. Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder
    • presence of one or more long-lasting tics that last for a year or more
    • may be either motor or vocal, but not both
  8. Tourette's syndrome
    • most sever form of tic disorders
    • presence of both motor tics and vocal tics
    • severity changes over time with periods of reduced tic frequency followed by heightened tic activity
    • may improve with age
  9. Treatment of tic disorders
    • dopamine receptor antagonists
    • antipsychotics
    • botulinum toxin type A injections
    • electrical brain stimulation using permanently implanted electrodes
  10. Dementia
    • degenerative state characterized by deficits in memory, language and/or mood
    • two types: Alzheimer's and vascular
  11. Vascular dementia
    • poor nutrition (from alcoholism)
    • hypertension
    • diabetes
    • stroke
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mental illness 2.txt

autism, tics disorders, dementia
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