Pharm antibiotics

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  1. Penicillin VK
  2. Penicillin GK, Penicillin G Sodium
    • Give IV
    • Monitor K, and Na
    • Careful in pt with HF and HTN
  3. Penicillin Benzarhine, Penicillin Procaine
    • Long acting, 2-3wks
    • Suspension- released over time= give IM
  4. Dicloxacillin (Dynapen), Nafcillin, Oxacillin
    • MRSA resistant to these
    • take Dicloxacillin on an empty stomach
  5. Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Augmentin
    Causes Diarrhea-take with food
  6. Ticarcillin, Timetin, Piperacillin, Zosyn
    Monitor NA

    careful in HF and HTN
  7. Cephalosporins
    • start with "ceph" or "cef"
    • contain beta lactam ring
    • cant give to pt. who hv severeallergy to penicllin or Carbapenems 
    • ADRS: Nausea (give w/food), thrombophlebitis (rotate INJ site), pain at INJ site(ceftriaxone) (mix w/litocaine)
    • as generation increases- becomes broader
  8. Carbapenem
    • End in Penem
    • Very broad! (can cause supra- infections)
    • has beta lactam
    • ADRS: well tolerated, GI upset, allegry, supra infections,
    • **Seizures in renal impairement if dose not adjusted (decreased)
  9. Tetracycline
    • end in cycline
    • dont give to kids under 8 y/o (injure developing bones and teeth), or pregnant pts
    • ADRS: photosensitivity (burn easy)(sunscreen, hat, etc.), injur developing bones and teeth (noone under 8 and pregnant), GI/hepatic SEs if long term (monitor LFT), yeast infections (supra-infection b/c broad), decrease effects of BC pills

    • Tetracylcine-take on empty stomach
    • Doxyxline- take w/ food
    • **cant take with any kind of metal (Fe, Al, etc.), Ca foods, antacids (take 1 hr before ingesting these, or 2 hrs after)
  10. Macrolides
    • end in "thromycin"
    • dont give with Coumadin (increase INR-bleeding), Tegretol(increase levels), Theo-Dur(increase levels)

    ADRS: GI upset, prolonged QT interval (ventricular dysrhythmia)

    • Erythromycin-cheap, many ADRS, 4x a day, many Drug-drug interactions
    • Clarithromycin-expensive, some drug-drug, less GI SEs, 2x a day,
    • Azithromycin-expensive, fewer drug-drug, 1xa day,  
  11. Aminoglycosides
    • end in "cin"
    • Give for serious infections (sepsis)
    • narrow TI range **monitor peak and trough
    • Theraputic level= 4-12, if more serious higher, if less lower
    • Cant mix in IV w/PCN
    • Interations: Loops ( ototoxicity + renal failure ** if trough >2=toxicity), amphotericin B (renal failure), skeletal muscle relaxants
    • ADRS: renal toxicity (check Scr clearance norm=.6-1.2), ototoxicity- cochlear=tinnitus, vestivular=HA 
  12. Sulfonamides: 
    begins with sulf (ex include bactrim + septra-UTIS)

    ADRS: rash(stop-stephen johnsons syndrome), blood abnormalties(CBC), Hemolytic anemia (CBC), photosensitivity (sunscreen, hats, etc), Kernicterus (dont give to kids <2 mo-is a build up of bilirubin), crystals in urine-renal damage(drink alot of water) 

    Interactions: warfarin (increases INR-bleeding, Dilantin, oral hypoglycemics 
  13. Fluoroquinolones
    end in "floxacin" 

    ADRS: NVD, CNS-dizzy, confused, HA, seizures (decrease dose in elderly), photosensitivity(hat, sunscreen), tendon rupture/damage to growing cartilage (*dont give to kids<18), liver abnormalities, black box warning 

    Interactions: warfarin(increase INR=bleeding), Fe, milk/dairy, antacids (give at different time)
  14. Clindamycin (cleocin)
    alteranative to PCN for certain serious infections

    ADRS: Anibiotic-associated psuedomembranous colitis (c-diff)= watery diarrhea w/blood and mucous (D/C med and give flagyl or vancomycin)
  15. Flagyl
    antibiotic and anti-protozoans or parasites 

    ADRS: metallic taste, *disulfram reaction if taken w/ alcohol= NV, dizzy, increase HR, SOB (given to acoholics to keep them from drinking), Liver toxicity
  16. Vancomycin
    • used for serious infections such as C-diff
    • Give IV unless c-diff (oral)

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Pharm antibiotics
2012-11-12 00:19:58

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