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What is gene expression?
- The process where genetic info flows from genes to proteins; flow of genetic info from genotype to phenotype.
- DNA ---> RNA ---> protein
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
Name two examples of nucleic acids:
DNA and RNA
What are the functions of enzymes during replication/transcription?
- 1. Breaking the hydrogen bonds between bases
- 2. Stabilizing the ends of the DNA
- 3. Bringing correct nucleotide and connecting them
- 4. Proofreading the new strands
- 5. Forming hydrogen bonds and "zipping" up the DNA molecule
Where in the cell does translation occur?
At the ribosome
What specifically does the transfer RNA do?
Brings the correct amino acid to the ribsome
When does replication occur?
During interphase before the cell divides
When does transcription occur?
When the cell needs to have a particular protein synthesized
How is RNA different than DNA?
RNA has a different sugar than DNA, RNA is a single strand; DNA is a double strand; RNA uses uracil instead of thymine.
Why are insertions and deletions considered more harmful than substitutions?
They change the sequence of bases in each codon for all of subsequent bases
What is a codon?
Every group of 3 bases on an mRNA molecule, Each codon is a code word for a specific amino acid.
What vector was used to get a human insulin gene into a bacterium?
What type of cell is used to provide the nucleus needed in cloning?
At what stage of development are embryonic stem cells derived?
What enzymes do you need to get the target gene into the organism?
Before the "invention" of GM organisms, how did humans manipulate the DNA of organisms?
What is each nucleotide made up of?
- Phosphate group
- -4 bases are: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
T/F: Every cell has the same genes.
- *Some genes are turned on and off ; this is controlled by different factors.
Prokaryotic DNA contains:
(Plants, Bacteria, etc.)
- -several million base pairs - one chromosome
- -related genes that are grouped
- -mostly coding DNA
Eukaryotic DNA contains:
(Humans Animals, Fungi, etc.)
- -billions of base pairs - several chromosomes
- -genes that are not grouped
- -mostly non-coding DNA
Noncoding DNA types:
- -Spacer DNA
Coding DNA contains:
-Exons that are the sequences in genes that code for a specific protein (this is interrupted by introns)
Homeotic genes do what?
- -Act as master switches
- -Start gene cascades
- -Coordinate development of specific structures
- -Cell and timing specific expression
What is a gene cascade?
An entire series of reactions which occurs as a result of a single trigger reaction orcompound.
What triggers a gene cascade?
a homeotic gene
DNA must be what to go through transcription?
In order to clone an extinct animal you would have to have a _________ cell that contains all of the ____________ from that animal.
What is an orgaism called that has genes from a different organism in it?
What would be the difference between the DNA molecules of a mouse and the DNA molecules of a fruit tree?
Sequence of bases
What is the process that occurs during development from a zygote to a mulitcellular organism where the cells specialize?