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What is the gold standard for treating chronic pain?
Opioids alone or in combination with non-opioid analgesics
What occurs in the PAG (peri-acqueductal gray)?
Midbrain processing center; high concentration of opioid receptors, modulation of pain response in descending endogenous pain suppressant pathways.
What are the three endogenous opioid agonists?
What is psychotomimesis?
Psychotic-like behavior (hallucinations, dysphoria)
What are common effects of Mu receptors?
- Physical dependence
- Respiratory depression
What are the common effects of Kappa receptors?
What are the common effects of Delta agonists?
- Releases Growth Hormone
What is the main MOA for opioids?
Opioids inhibit adenylyl cyclase, increase K+ influx, reduce Ca2+ influx, and therefore decrease neurotransmitter release
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