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  1. sound
    the (audible) energy of vibrating particles 
  2. frequency
    # cycles/second in Hertz (Hz).  A 1000 Hz tone goes through 1000 cycles every second
  3. amplitude
    Magnitude of displacement from equilibrium 
  4. phase
    • the relative timing of the sound wave.  
    • When does it start relative to another sound wave?
  5. pitch
    the perceptual correlate of frequency (how we perceive it)
  6. intensity
    amplitude of sound pressure level being perceived
  7. what is the frequency range for human?
    20-20,000 Hz
  8. pathway of sound into the ear
    sound --> outer ear --> middle ear --> inner ear --> brain
  9. outer ear includes these structures:
    pinna (external, visible portion) and the ear canal (external auditory meatus)
  10. functions of the pinna
    collects and funnels sounds into the ear

    boosts the high frequencies by about 5dB

    helps with sound localization
  11. functions of the ear canal
    boosts frequencies around 2500-3500 Hz by about 15dB
  12. structures of the middle ear
    eardrum (tympanic membrane)

    3 ossicles (bones): malleus (hammer), incus, stapes (stirrup)
  13. structures of the inner ear
    vestibule semicircular canals

  14. pathway of sound development
    Stapes vibrates --> sets fluids of the cochlea into motion --> moves the hair cells back and forth --> causes an electrochemical change that converts the signal into neural impulses (action potentials) in the auditory nerve
  15. acoustic nerve
    carries info (still organzied tonotopically) to the brainstem and beyond
  16. auditory cortex
    located in the temporal lobe in the sylvian fissure (heschl's gyrus) of the superior surface of the temporal lobe

    cell organization is similar to that of the visual system
  17. how do we detect pitch?
    temporal theory
    The neuron fires at the same frequency as the incoming sound
  18. how do we detect pitch?
    place theory
    The frequency of the incoming sound stimulates a particular point on the basilar membrane, and the neurons connected to that frequency region fire
Card Set:
2012-11-12 01:56:23
perceptual auditory system anatomy physiology

perceptual: auditory system anatomy and physiology
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