Cell division of the nucleus. End up with 2 cells that are exactly like the parent cell. 2N cells → 2N cells
Actual division of the cell after mitosis.
Actual division of the cell after mitosis. Cytokinesis
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo. (Mitosis)
Special cell division to make SEX cells - GAMETES - sperm and eggs - that only end up with ½ the regular number of chromosomes in the gametes.
2N cells → 1N cell
The regular number of chromosomes in a body cell. For humans this is 2N = 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Half the number of chromosomes found in a regular body cell. This is the number of chromosomes found in sperm and egg cells. This is N- 23 chromosomes (NO PAIRS!) in humans.
Gametes- sperm and egg cells. Made by meiosis with ½ the regular number of chromosomes in them.
Diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg.
Orderly arrangement of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans to check if all are present.
Chromosome pairs #1-22
X and Y (23rd pair)
Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids from homologous chromosome during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations
Genes found on the X chromosome.
Physical expression of a gene - Ex. Widow's peak. "What you see"
Gene combination for that trait - Ex. Ww or WW or ww
Molecule of heredity. Chromosomes are made up of coiled up DNA.
A rod shaped structure (or an "X" shape, if it has already been copied) made of DNA which has different sections called genes.
A section of a chromosome that codes for a certain protein - Ex. you have a gene for blood type on chromosome #9. Humans have 30,000 genes total.
Different versions of a gene. For example, the gene of hairline has an allele for widow's peak and another allele for straight hairline. They would be found on the same location on the assigned chromosome.
2 different alleles (varieties) for a gene. Ex. Ww
2 of the same alleles for a gene and they both are dominant. Ex. WW
Homozygous Dominant; "Pure"
Homozygous Recessive; "Pure" 2 of the same alleles for a gene and they both are recessive. Ex. ww
Homozygous Recessive; "Pure"
Branch of biology that studies heredity
Passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
Offspring formed by parents having different forms of a specific trait.
Trait Characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive
A description of an allele which means that you only need one copy for the gene to "show up" or be expressed in the phenotype.
A description of an allele which means that you must have 2 copies of the gene for it to "show up" or be expressed in the phenotype.
Considered the Father of Genetics. Developed different genetic laws in the 1860's which include the Law of Dominance and Recessive, the Law of Independent Assortment, and the Law of Segregation.
A Family tree that uses symbols to show the inheritance of a trait over generations.
Failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis; results in gametes with too many or too few chromosomes
Some genes are not completely dominant over others so the trait appears to be "somewhere in the middle" of both genes. Ex. Same red flowers x some white flowers = some pink flowers.
A person who "carries" a recessive gene (usually one that causes a disorder or disease) but does not have the disorder or disease themselves - they can pass it on to their children.
Mmajor source of genetic variation among organisms caused by re-assortment or crossing over during meiosis
Mendelian principal stating that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.
Law of independent assortment
Mendelian principal explaining that because each plant has two different alleles, it can produce two different types of gametes. During fertilization, male and female gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles