Psychology

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amcmullen
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183090
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Psychology
Updated:
2012-11-12 00:13:12
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Chapter 10
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Personality
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  1. Personality
    An individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
  2. Personality Theory
    A theory that attempts to describe and explain similarities and differences in people's patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
  3. Psychoanalytic Perspective
    Emphasizes the importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience
  4. Humanistic Perspective
    Represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person's unique potential
  5. Social Cognitive Perspective
    Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation
  6. Trait Perspective
    Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals
  7. Psychoanalysis
    Sigmund Freud's theory of personality, which emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development
  8. Free Association
    A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind
  9. Unconscious
    In Freud's Theory, a term used to describe thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness
  10. Conscious
    In Freud's Theory, information in your immediate awareness
  11. Preconscious
    In Freud's Theory, information that can easily be made conscious
  12. Freud's three basic structures of personality
    Id, Ego, Superego
  13. Id
    Latin for the it; in Freud's theory, the completely unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives; ruled by the pleasure principle
  14. Eros
    The self-preservation or life instinct, reflected in the expression of basic biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the species
  15. Libido
    The psychological and emotional energy associated with expressions of sexuality; the sex drive
  16. Thanatos
    The death instinct, reflected in aggressive, destructive, and self-destructive actions
  17. Pleasure Principle
    The motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort; the most fundamental human motive and the guiding principle of the id
  18. Ego
    Latin for I; in Freud's theory, the partly conscious rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world
  19. Reality Principle
    The capacity to accommodate external demands by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist
  20. Superego
    In Freud's theory, the partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules
  21. Ego Defense Mechanisms
    Largely unconscious distortions of thoughts or perceptions that act to reduce anxiety
  22. Repression
    The unconscious exclusion of anxiety-provoking thoughts, feelings, and memories from conscious awareness; the most fundamental ego defense mechanism
  23. Displacement
    The ego defense mechanism that involves unconsciously shifting the target of an emotional urge to a substitute target that is less threatening or dangerous
  24. Sublimation
    An ego defense mechanism that involves redirecting sexual urges toward productive, socially acceptable, nonsexual activities; a form of displacement
  25. Rationalization
    Justifying one's actions or feelings with socially acceptable explanations rather than consciously acknowledging one's true motives or desires
  26. Projection
    The attribution of one's own unacceptable urges or qualities to others
  27. Reaction Formation
    Thinking or behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses
  28. Denial
    The failure to recognize or acknowledge the existence of anxiety-producing information
  29. Undoing
    A form of unconscious repentance that involves neutralizing or atoning for an unacceptable action or thought with a second action or thought
  30. Regression
    Retreating to a behavior pattern characteristic of an earlier stage of development
  31. Psychosexual Stages
    In Freud's theory, age-related developmental periods in which the child's sexual urges are focused on different areas of the body and are expressed through the activities associated with those areas
  32. Oedipus Complex
    In Freud's theory, a child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings for the same-sex parent
  33. Identification
    In psychoanalytic theory, an ego defense mechanism that involves reducing anxiety by imitating the behavior and characteristics of another person
  34. Oral Stage
    • Birth to age 1
    • The mouth is the primary focus of pleasurable and gratifying sensations, which the infant achieves via feeding and exploring objects with his mouth
  35. Anal Stage
    • 1 to 3
    • The anus is the primary focus of pleasurable sensations, which the young child derives through developing control over elimination via toilet training
  36. Phallic
    • 3 to 6
    • The genitals are the primary focus of pleasurable sensations, which the child derives through sexual curiosity, masturbation, and sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent
  37. Latency
    • 7 to 11
    • Sexual impulses become repressed and dormant as the child develops same-sex friendships with peers and focuses on school, sports, and other activities
  38. Genital
    • Adolescence
    • As the adolescent reaches physical sexual maturity, the genitals become the primary focus of pleasurable sensations, which the person seeks to satisfy in heterosexual relationships
  39. Manifest Content
    The surface images of a dream, the elements that are consciously experienced and remembered by the dreamer
  40. Latent Content
    The true, hidden, unconscious meaning of a dream disguised in the dream symbols
  41. Castration Anxiety
    The fear that a boy's father will punish him by castrating him (Freud's phallic stage)
  42. Catharsis
    A technique developed by Joseph Breur, in which he hypnotized a patient, then asked the patient to speak freely about a given symptom, and forgotten memories of a traumatic event would emerge. After freely expressing the pent up emotions associated with the event, the symptoms would disappear.
  43. Penis Envy
    A little girl discovers that little boys have a penis and she does not, and feels a sense of deprivation and loss. She develops contempt for and resentment toward her mother. 
  44. Neo-Freudians
    Freud's followers. They kept the foundation but developed their own explanations for personality processes. 
  45. Collective Unconscious
    In Jung's theory, the hypothesized part of the unconscious mind that is inherited from previous generations and that contains universally shared ancestral experiences and ideas
  46. Archetypes
    In Jung's theory, the inherited mental images of universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations that are the main components of the collective unconscious
  47. Anima
    The "feminine" side of every man
  48. Animus
    The "masculine" side of every woman
  49. Introvert
    A basic personality type in which people focus their attention inward
  50. Extravert
    A basic personality type in which people focus their attention and energy toward the outside world
  51. Basic Anxiety
    the feeling a child has of being isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world
  52. Womb Envy
    Men envying women's capacity to bear children
  53. Striving for Superiority
    The desire to improve oneself, master challenges, and move toward self-perfection and self-realization
  54. Feelings of Inferiority
    Experienced during infancy and childhood, when the child is helpless and dependent on others
  55. Inferiority Complex
    A general sense of inadequacy, weakness, and helplessness. Often unable to strive for mastery and self-improvement. 
  56. Superiority Complex
    Overcompensation for feelings of inferiority, denying the reality of one's limitations

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