BI 253 Chapters 12-13

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medic11
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183144
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BI 253 Chapters 12-13
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2012-11-12 08:50:10
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BI 253
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Ch 12-13 11-11-12
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  1. Which type of reproduction provides genetic diversity & why?
    Sexual b/c genetic material is shuffled
  2. Reproduction based on mitotic division of the nucleus is ___ or ___.
    Asexual or cloning
  3. ____ reproduction provides genetic material fr both parents.
    Sexual
  4. Variation in asexual reproduction is due to ____ not the parents.
    Mutation
  5. In asexual reproduction offspring ____ identical to parents where as in sexual reproduction offspring ___ identical to parents
    • Are
    • Are not
  6. Mitosis is the division of ____ cells where as Meiosis is the division of ___ or ___ cells.
    • Somatic
    • Gametes or Sex
  7. Mitosis creates ____ copies where as Meiosis creates ___ copies.
    • Identical
    • Non-identical
  8. What are the 5 steps in mitosis?
    • Prophase
    • Prometaphase
    • Metapahase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  9. In mitosis, what is the relationship between amt of genetic material @ beginning & end?
    There is the same amt at beginning & end
  10. The process of meiosis ends w/ ____ the genetic material it started with.
    Half
  11. In meiosis, the nucleus divides ____ but the DNA replicated ____.
    • Twice
    • Once
  12. How many daughter cells are formed in meiosis?
    4
  13. What are 3 functions of Meiosis?
    • Reduce chromosome fr 2n → n
    • Ensure each gamete gets a set of chromosomes
    • Promote genetic diversity
  14. Each of a pr of DNA molecules after DNA replication is called a ____.
    Chromatid
  15. What structure joins 2 chromatids together?
    Centromere
  16. The protein/DNA complex that makes up chromosomes is called ____.
    Chromatin
  17. What term describes DNA complexed w/specific proteins that are responsible for storage & transmission of genetic material?
    Chromosome
  18. How do chromatids, chromatin & centromeres all come together?
    2 chromatids, made of chromatin, are held together at a centromere
  19. Proteins that DNA wraps around during interphase are called ___?
    Histones
  20. What is a nucleosome & what does it look like?
    • DNA wrapped around a histone
    • Looks like beads on a string
  21. Nucleosomes are made up of ___ histone molecules w/ ___ base prs of DNA utilizing histone H1 to what?
    • 8
    • 146
    • Clamp DNA to the core
  22. What structure separates daughter cells during cell division?
    Mitotic Spindle
  23. What are 2 types of microtubules that make up the mitotic spindle?
    • Polar
    • Kinetochore
  24. What do polar microtubules do in the mitotic spindle?
    Form a frame work that overlaps & interacts w/both sides
  25. What do kinetochore microtubules attach to and where?
    Kinetochores on chromosomes
  26. Regions where microtubules are formed are called what?
    Centrosome (formed at home)
  27. Each centrosome produces ___ ___.
    2 centrioles
  28. Cylindrical structures that are composed of 9 triplet microtubules & form mitotic spindle are called ___.
    Centrioles (plays a role)
  29. The specialized region of the chromosome to which spindle fibers attach during cell division are called ____.
    Centromere (attaches here)
  30. Polar & kinetochore microtubules are formed in the ____.
    Centrosomes
  31. Each centrism contains a pr of ___.
    Centrioles
  32. A chart that organizes chromosomes based on size, number & shape is called a ____.
    Karyotype
  33. What are 4 steps to create a karyotype?
    • Collect cell in metaphase
    • Pierce nucleus so chromosomes spill out
    • Photograph them
    • Separate them according to characteristics & organize on chart
  34. What is the primary use for a karyotype?
    Show Chromosomal abnormalities that cause genetic problems
  35. What does a haploid describe & how is it denoted?
    • # of chromosomes in a Gamete cell
    • Denoted by "n"
  36. When 2 haploid cells (egg & sperm) fuse in fertilization, a ___ is created that is a ___ (2n).
    • Zygote
    • Diploid
  37. The number of chromosomes in a somatic cell is denoted ___ & is ___.
    • 2n
    • Diploid
  38. A pr of chromosomes where members share same genes & are similar but not identical are called ____ ____.
    Homologous Chromosomes
  39. A ____ is one of a pr of chromosomes.
    Homolog
  40. Egg & sperm are both ___ cells until fertilization then they become ____.
    • Haploid (n)
    • Diploid (2n)
  41. Prokaryotic cells divide by a process of ____ ____.
    Binary Fission
  42. Binary Fission is a form of ____ reproduction.
    Asexual
  43. Asexual reproduction & binary fission ALWAYS create daughter cells that are ____ to parents.
    Identical
  44. What are the steps in binary fission?
    • Cells grow in size
    • DNA replicates
    • Cytokinesis occurs
  45. When a cells divides much like a drawstring bag when it closes it is called ____.
    Cytokinesis
  46. What are the 2 reproductive signals for binary fission?
    • Environmental conds just right
    • Proper nutrient concetrations
  47. What is the origin of replication or where replication begins called?
    Ori
  48. The terminus of replication or where replication ends is called what?
    Ter
  49. What are the 2 primary phases of the cell cycle?
    • Mitosis
    • Interphase
  50. What are the 3 subphases of the interphase of the cell cycle?
    • Gap 1 (G1)
    • S (synthesis)
    • Gap 2 (G2)
  51. When does the G1 phase of cell cycle occur?
    Aft mitosis b/f synthesis
  52. When some cells leave the G1 phase they go to a resting phase called ___.
    G0
  53. At what point does a cell commit to dividing?
    G1 → S transition
  54. During the S phase of the cell cycle what happens?
    DNA is synthesized or replicated
  55. What 2 things do cells do during the G2 phase of cell cycle?
    • Prepares for mitosis
    • Makes microtubules for mitotic spindle
  56. What do cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CdK's) do?
    Trigger phase to phase transitions in the cell cycle
  57. What are cyclins & CdKs made up of?
    Specialized proteins & enzymes
  58. A ____ always present in a cell but active site not open until it binds with a ____.
    • Cyclin Dependent Kinase
    • Cyclin
  59. Cyclins are made when?
    At certain points in cell cycle depends on which 1 they are
  60. When a cyclin & Cdk bind, exposing Cdk's active site, what events happen next?
    • Protein substrate & ATP bind to active site
    • Phosphorylated protein released to reg cell cycle
    • ADP also released
  61. Cyclin D - Cdk 4 & cyclin E - Cdk 2 bind during ___ phase & accomplish what?
    • G1
    • Phosphorylate Rb to move cell past restriction pt R
  62. Cyclin A - Cdk 2 act during ___ phase & to stimulate ____ ____?
    • S phase
    • Stimulate DNA replication
  63. Cyclin B - Cdk 1 act during the ___ → ___ boundary to initiate ____.
    • G2 → M
    • Mitosis
  64. When speaking of gender chromosomes 2 X's = ____ & 1X & 1Y = ____.
    • Female
    • Male
  65. What chromosomal abnormality occurs when either homologous chromosomes fail to separate during anaphase I or sis chromatids fail to separate during anaphase II?
    Non Disjunction
  66. A form of non disjunction where there are too many or not enough chromosomes is called ___.
    Aneuploidy
  67. What is the name given to a condition where there are whole extra sets of chromosomes?
    Polyploids
  68. ____ occurs when part of 1 chromosome breaks off & attaches to another.
    Trans Location

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