Chapter 32.txt

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Chapter 32.txt
2012-11-12 12:46:39
Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System
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  1. Essential Organs
    gonads are the paired ovaries; gametes are ova produced by the ovaries—the ovaries are also internal genitals
  2. Accessory Organs
    • Internal genitals —uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina: ducts or duct structures that extend from the ovaries to the exterior
    • –External genitals —the vulva
    • –Additional sex glands such as the mammary glands
  3. Perineum
    • -skin-covered region between the vaginal orifice and the rectum
    • –This area may be torn during childbirth
  4. Location of the ovaries
    –Nodular glands located on each side of the uterus, below and behind the uterine tubes (Figure 32-2)
  5. Ectopic pregnancy
    development of the fetus in a place other than the uterus
  6. Microscopic structure of the ovaries
    • –Surface of the ovaries is covered by the germinal epithelium
    • –Ovarian follicles contain the developing female sex cells (Figure 32-3)
    • –Ovum —an oocyte released from the ovary (contains haploid or half number of chromosomes-23)
  7. Functions of the ovaries
    Ovaries produce ova —the female gametes
  8. Oogenesis
    process that results in formation of a mature egg (ovum) (Figure 32-4)
  9. The ovaries are endocrine organs that secrete the female sex hormones
    estrogens and progesterone
  10. Size and shape of uterus
    Pear-shaped, has two main parts—the cervix and the body
  11. Wall of uterus is composed of three layers
    inner endometrium, middle myometrium, and outer, incomplete layer of perimetrium (parietal peritoneum)
  12. Cavities of uterus
    • cavities are small because of the thickness of the uterine walls
    • -The body cavity’s apex constitutes the internal os and opens into the cervical canal, which is constricted at its lower end and forms the external os that opens into the vagina
  13. The blood to the uterus is supplied by
    uterine arteries
  14. Location of the uterus
    • –Located in pelvic cavity between urinary bladder and rectum (Figure 32-1)
    • –Position of uterus (Figure 32-5) is altered by age, pregnancy, and distention of related pelvic viscera
    • –Descends, between birth and puberty, from the lower abdomen to the true pelvis
    • –Begins to decrease in size at menopause
  15. Position of the uterus
    • Body lies flexed over the bladder
    • –Cervix points downward and backward, joining the vagina at a right angle
    • –Several ligaments hold the uterus in place but allow some movement
  16. Functions of the uterus
    • –Part of reproductive tract, permits sperm to ascend toward uterine tubes
    • –If conception occurs, an offspring develops in the uterus
  17. •Embryo is supplied with nutrients by______until the production of the placenta
    endometrial glands
  18. Placenta
    organ that permits exchange of materials between mother’s blood and fetal blood but keeps the two circulations separate
  19. Myometrial contractions
    occur during labor and help push the offspring out of mother’s body
  20. If conception does not occur, ____ are shed during menstruation
    outer layers of endometrium
  21. Menstruation is
    a cyclical event that allows the endometrium to renew itself
  22. Uterine Tubes
    • •Uterine tubes are also called fallopian tubes, or oviducts
    • •Uterine tubes are attached to the uterus at its upper outer angles and extend upward and outward toward sides of pelvis
  23. Structure of uterine tubes
    • –Consist of mucosal lining, smooth muscle, and serous coat (Figure 32-6)
    • –Tubal mucosa is continuous with that of the uterus and vagina, which means it may become infected with organisms introduced into the vagina
  24. –Each uterine tube has three divisions:
    isthmus, ampulla, and infundibulum and ends in finger-like projections called fimbria
  25. Function of the uterine tubes
    –Serve as transport channels for ova and as the site of fertilization (fertilization occurs in the ampulla).
  26. Vagina
  27. Vagina is a tubular organ located between the rectum posteriorly, the urethra, and the bladder anteriorly
  28. Structure of the vagina
    • –Collapsible tube capable of distention, composed of smooth muscle, and lined with mucous membrane arranged in rugae
    • –Anterior wall is shorter than posterior wall because cervix protrudes into its uppermost portion
  29. Hymen
    a mucous membrane that typically forms a border around the vagina in young premenstrual girls
  30. Functions of the vagina
    • –Lining of the vagina lubricates and stimulates the penis during sexual intercourse and acts as a receptacle for semen
    • –Lower portion of the birth canal
    • –Transports tissue and blood shed during menstruation to the exterior
  31. The vulva consists of
    the female external genitals: mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, urinary meatus, vaginal orifice, and greater vestibular glands (Figure 32-8)
  32. Functions of the vulva
    • –The mons pubis and labia protect the clitoris and vestibule
    • –The clitoris contains sensory receptors that send information to the sexual response area of the brain
    • –The vaginal orifice is the boundary between the internal and external genitals
  33. Beast Location and size
    –The breasts lie over the pectoral muscles
  34. –_______ and ______control breast development
    Estrogens and progesterone
  35. Breast size is determined by
    the amount of fat around glandular tissue
  36. Function of the breasts
    The function of mammary glands is lactation
  37. –Mechanism of lactation
    • •Ovarian hormones make breasts structurally ready to produce milk
    • •Shedding of placenta results in decrease of estrogens and thus stimulates prolactin
    • •Prolactin stimulates lactation
  38. Lactation can provide nutrient-rich milk to offspring for up to several years from birth; some advantages are
    • •Nutrients
    • •Passive immunity from antibodies present in colostrum and milk
    • •Emotional bonding between mother and child
    • •Lactation lowers the incidence of breast cancer
  39. The female reproductive system has many cyclical changes that start with the beginning of
  40. Ovarian cycle
    ovaries from birth contain oocytes in primary follicles in which the meiotic process has been suspended; at the beginning of menstruation each month, several of the oocytes resume meiosis; meiosis will stop again just before the cell is released during ovulation (Figure 32-11)
  41. Menstrual cycle (endometrial cycle) is divided into four phases:
    • •Menses
    • •Postmenstrual phase
    • •Ovulation
    • •Premenstrual phase
    • –Myometrial phase
    • –Gonadotropic cycle
  42. Failure to have a menstrual cycle is called:
  43. Control of female reproductive cycles
    • –The main hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is progesterone and some estrogens
    • –Control of cyclical changes in gonadotropin secretion is caused by positive and negative feedback mechanisms and involves estrogens, progesterone, and the hypothalamus’s secretion of releasing hormones
  44. FSH function
    stimulates primary graafian follicles to grow toward maturity (oogenesis); also stimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogens.
  45. LH function
    triggers ovulation. Also, LH stimulates the Corpus luteum to secrete mainly progesterone and some estrogens.
  46. Importance of the female reproductive cycles
    • -Ovarian cycle’s primary function is to produce an ovum at regular intervals
    • -Secondary function is to regulate endometrial cycle through estrogen and progesterone
  47. Function of endometrial cycle
    is to make uterus suitable for implantation of a new offspring
  48. Cyclical nature of the reproductive system and the fact that fertilization will occur within 24 hours after ovulation means
    that a woman is only fertile a few days of each month
  49. Menstrual flow begins
    at puberty, and menstrual cycle continues for about three decades
  50. The female reproductive system shares a special relationship with
    • -The urinary system because of their close proximity and because they share the vulva
    • –The skeletal muscles in the perineum
    • –The integumentary system because breasts are actually modifications of the sweat glands of the skin