Biology 3 pt. two

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Biology 3 pt. two
2012-11-12 13:51:29

Unit 3
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  1. Plasmids are often used to transfer genes from one organism to another. In this capacity the plasmid acts as a __________. 
  2. What is the purpose of PCR?
    To create multiple copies of DNA in a very short period of time
  3. How does natural selection work?
    Those individuals with favorable traits for an environment are more likely to survive and pass on those traits to offspring.
  4. The front leg of a cat and the wing of a bat both have the same bones in the same order. This is an example of a ________ _________. 
    Homologous structure
  5. Why do organisms have to compete for resources? 
    There are more of them than resources to go around
  6. What is microevolution? 
    Evolution that changes frequency of alleles in a population.
  7. Why do flies have so many offspring?
    Because most won't survive.
  8. Any characteristic that improves the survival of the organism is considered an 
  9. What is a gene pool?
    All the alleles in a population
  10. Name the key observations that helped Darwin develop his theory of evolution: 
    • 1. Organisms produce more offspring than can survive
    • 2. Competition for resources
    • 3. Variation within a species
    • 4. Those individuals with traits that are favorable for a particular environment are more likely to survive and produce offspring (natural selection)
  11. When we speak of evolution, what actually evolves? 
    Populations or species
  12. A flock of Canadian Geese from Noth Dakota permanently relocates to Cache Valley where they integrate with the established populations of Canandian Geese. What mechanism of microevolution does this illustrate?
    Gene flow
  13. The Californian Condor has a very small gene pool. What happened to cause this?
    Genetic bottleneck
  14. List some lines of evidence that support evolution: 
    Fossil evidence; homologies, embryological evidence, research, molecular evidence (DNA similarities)
  15. After the drought on the Galapagos Island of Daphne Major the only seeds available for the medium ground finch were larger than they normally ate. Within a couple of generations the beaks of the finch populations were larger. This is a case of natual selection. What "selected" for larger beaks? 
    The seed size - in this case, the larger seeds. 
  16. An example of _________ ________, is when a female picks up a specific male to mate with. 
    Sexual Selection
  17. _________ are the original source of genetic variation within a population. 
  18. Genetic drift causes random changes in _______ frequency.
  19. What happens to the gene pool following a bottleneck? 
    It becomes smaller
  20. Why are poodles, labs, and dalmations all considered the same species? 
    They can normally interbreed with one another and have fertile offspring. 
  21. What makes up the scientific name to an organism?
    Genus and Species
  22. Define macroevolution:
    Evolution that results in the formation of a new species. 
  23. What type of features is oftern seen in convergent evolution? 
  24. The formation of new species without geographic isolation is called 
    sympatric speciation.
  25. List the types of prezygotic barriers:
    • 1. Temporal
    • 2. Ecological
    • 3. Behavioral
    • 4. Mechanical
    • 5. Gametic
  26. List the types of poszygotic barriers: 
    • 1. Hybrid inviability
    • 2. Hybrid sterility
    • 3. Hybrid breakdown
  27. The endemic fish found in Bear Lake are probably a result of _________ speciation
  28. Polyploidy is most commonly seen in _______. 
  29. For speciation to occur there needs to be barriers to _________. 
  30. What happens to the gene pool following a bottleneck?
    It gets smaller
  31. What is the genus for the Atlantic spotted dolphin with the scientific name Stenella frontalis?
  32. Give an example of a housekeeping gene:
    gene used to make enzymes necessary for cellualr respiration
  33. Where do the signals that control gene expression come from?
    Internal and external environment
  34. For a gene to be expressed it has to be ________ so that transcriptions can take place. 
  35. What are the types of non-coding DNA?
    • transposons
    • introns
    • spacer DNA
  36. When a homeotic gene is wworking correctly it will start gene ________.