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Despite superficial similarities, the further east one went in Europe, c. 1700,
- a. the greater the importance and size of the bourgeoisie.
- b. the greater the importance of the state, vis-a-vis civil society.
- c. the weaker the agricultural sector of the economy compared to commerce.
Peter's decision to Europeanize his country was decisive and revolutionary because
- a. the state was incomparably more powerful than any other institution.
- b. the personality of the tsar was the main force in Russia.
- c. prior to his reign western influence was unknown in Russia.
Along with his half-brother Ivan V, Peter I, aged 10, succeeded
c. his half-brother Theodore [Fedor].
During the succession crisis, in 1682 and in1689, it made the final formal decision:
a. the boyar duma.
Sophia's Regency was greatly weakened by
b. military fiascos for which her favorite, Prince Basil Golytsin, was responsible.
As a youth growing up in the Moscow suburbs, Peter's favorite place to visit was
- a. Church.
- b. the Nemetskaia Sloboda
- c. the Novodevichii Monastery.
Peter's playmates were subsequently to be organized as
a. the first two Guards Regiments,
The social composition of Peter's reformist entourage:
c. the entire social gamut, including clergy and foreigners.
Aside from his second wife, Catherine, Peter's closest associate was the former pie-vendor
a. Alexander Menshikov.
When Peter's forces were defeated by the Turks at Azov, in 1695, the new tsar
a. built up a quasi-modern invasion fleet and came back to win.
The Grand Embassy departed in March 1697, and Peter stayed abroad for
c. eighteen months.
The final death of the old order in Russia was symbolized by
b. the gruesome execution of the streltsy, following their rebellion in 1698.
Peter joined the Great Northern War on 19 August 1700, and on 30 November
c. 40K Russians were defeated by 4K Swedes at the Battle of Narva.
Peter made use of the years 1701-1708 to modernize his forces and to
a. invade Sweden while its king was in Poland.
The fully Europeanized Russian army finally destroyed its Swedish counterpart
b. at Nystadt, in Sweden, on 30 August 1721, thus ending the war.
During Peter's reign, only for one entire year (1724) and __ various months was Russia at peace.
Under Peter's conscription laws, each draftee, whether gentleman or serf, started at the bottom and served
c. for life.
The elite Guards regiments were
c. used as agents who carried out special assignments by-passing the bureaucracy.
Peter's reign began with a large, albeit obsolete, army and a navy consisting of
a. one obsolete vessel.
It first met only in the monarch's absence but became a permanent and important body:
b. the Imperial Senate.
The Academy of Sciences [Akademiia nauk], founded in 1725
b. still exists as the country's premier institution of higher learning.
In general, Peter's administrative reforms succeeded only at the _____ level.
The Holy Synod, 12 clerics overseen by a lay Ober-Procurator,
b. replaced the office of patriarch and governed the Church under the law.
Under Peter Russia was flooded with western-named institutions and imported terminology,
- a. yet, as of old, everything turned on bribery, corruption and arbitrary officials.
- b. and reality tended, on the whole, to conform to the image decreed by the reforms.
- c. while the head tax lightened the burden on the lower classes.
Peter's financial and social reforms might be described as
a. wholesale revolutionary change on the western model.
Peter made economic development a high priority,
b. and his famous efforts to stimulate private enterprise were mainly successes.
The most lasting and impressive symbol of Peter's turn to the West:
a. St. Petersburg, the new capital built in the architectural styles of Europe.
In general, the most lasting of Peter's reforms have proved to have been the
Unlike Ivan IV, Peter the Great
c. did not slip over into the neurotic world of paranoia.
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