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What is cloning?
To produce genetically identical copies of a cell, organism, or DNA molecule.
What are the steps to cloning an organism?
- 1. Remove nucleus from egg cell
- 2. Add somatic cell from the adult donor
- 3. Grow in culture to produce a blastocyst (early embryo)
- 4. Either:
- in Reproductive cloning-implant embryo in surrogate mother and clone of donor is born
- in Therapeutic cloning- removing embryonic stem cells from embryo and grow in culture and then induce stem cells to form specialized cells for therapeutic use
What are the steps to creating a genetically modified organism?
- 1. Isolate plasmids
- 2. Isolate DNA
- 3. Cut both DNAs with same enzyme
- 4. Mix the DNA fragments and join them together
- 5. Bacteria take up recombinant plasmids
- 6. Clone the bacteria
- 7. Find the clone with the gene of interest
- 8. The gene and protein of interest are isolated from the bacteria.
What are some of the uses (examples) of genetically modified organisms?
Pest resistant plants, toxic clean-up bacteria, insulin, etc.
What are the different types of stem cells?
Adult and embryonic
What can embryonic stems cells be used for?
To develop into a particular cell that could potentially grow cells for the repair of injured or diseased organs
What can adult stem cells be used for?
Types of specialized cells that can be used to generate similar kinds of cells. Ex:stem cells taken from bone marrow can be used to create other types of blood cells.
Evolutionary change above the species level, including the origin of evolutionary novelty and new taxonomic groups and the impact of mass extinctions on the diversity of life and its subsequent recovery is:
A change in a population's gene pool over a succession of generations; evolutionary changes in species over relatively brief periods of geologic time.
What is the differences between homologous and analogous structures?
- Homologous - bat wing and human hand
- Analogous - bat wing and butterfly wing
What is convergent evolution?
- The evolution of similar features in different evolutionary lineages which can result from living in very similar environments
- **Being able to swim (dolphin vs. shark), fly (bird vs. bat vs. butterfly), live in dry/hot conditions (rattlesnake vs. camel) etc.