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2012-11-12 16:42:52

Study cards for test Wednesday
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  1. What is a tide? What causes tides?
    The rise and fall of any body of water.  The moon and sun's gravitiational pull causes tides.
  2. Why do the heights of tides change during the course of a month?
    The moon rotates one time around the Earth during the course of a month.  
  3. Describe the positions of the sun, moon, and Earth during spring and neap tides.
    • Neap Tide- Sun, Earth, and moon are at right angles of eachother. (Lowest tides.)
    • Spring Tide- when the Sun, Earth, and moon are in a straight line (highest tides).
  4. What is the atomosphere?
    The atmosphere is an envolope of gases that surround the Earth.
  5. What are the four most common gases in the air?
    • Oxygen (21 percent), Nitrogen (78 percent), Argon (0.93 percent), and Carbon Dioxide (0.038 percent).
    • Water vapor may also be included in certain situations
  6. What are three ways in which the atmosphere is important to life on Earth?
    • 1. Burns up metoriods before they can hit Earth.
    • 2. Protects Earth from UV radiation
    • 3.  Provides gases that are essential to life
  7. What is air pressure?
    Air pressure is the weight of a collum of air pushing down on a certian area
  8. How does increasing the density of a gas affect its pressure?
    If you increase the density og a gas, the pressure also increases.
  9. As altitude increases, how does air pressure change? Density?
    As altitude increases increases, both air pressure and density decrease.
  10. What changes in air pressure would you expect if you carried a barometer down a mine shaft?
    You would expect the air pressure to increase considerably since you are going deeper into the Earth therefore there is more weight above you. 
  11. Give one important characteristic of each layer of Earth's atmosphere.
    • 1. Troposphere- where weather occurs
    • 2. Stratosphere- contains ozone layer
    • 3. Mesophere- protects Earth from Meteroids
    • 4. Thermosophere- contains ionsphere which sends radio waves
    • 5. Exosphere- where sattilites orbit the Earth
  12. Why does the moon appear to change during the course of a month?
    The moon changes postions around the Earth during a month, making it seem like the moon is changing shape on Earth.
  13. How is a solar eclipse different then a lunar eclipse?
    • A solar eclipse occurs during the new moon, and its when the moon blocks out some of the sun. (SME) 
    • A lunar eclipse occurs during the full moon and its when the sun blocks the moon. (SEM)
  14.   Explain why most costal reigons have two high and low tides each day.
    The Earth spins one complete time a day.
  15. What is the advantage of a multistage rocket compared to a single stage?
    A multistage can drop its excess weight as it is moving, making the rocket lighter and therefore faster.
  16. What is the "space race"?
    The "space race" was a race between the USA and the Soviet Union during the Cold War to be the first in space, therefore giving them an advantage in the war.
  17. Be sure to know the moon phases
  18. What are oribital and escape velocity?
    • Orbital velocity- speed you must maintain in order to orbit around something
    • Escape velocity- speed yo must maintain to escape something's gravitational pull
  19. Know about space race.
    • Sputnik 1- 1957
    • First satilite ever; launched by the Soviet Union
    • NASA is born- 1958
    • Launched in response to Sputnik
    • First Man in Space- April 1961
    • Yori Gagprin orbited Earth once
    • Feburary 1962
    • John Glenn became the first man to orbit Earth
    • Apollo 11- July 1969

    • Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins
    • Landed on moon July 20th, 1969
    • Space Shuttle Arrives- 1961
    • Re- usable space shuttle that could take to and from space
    • Retired in 2011 after 135 launches
    • Final shuttles were Atlantis, Discovery, and Endeavour
    • International Space Station (ISS)- 1998-2011
    • Made up of parts from all different countries; will function until at least 2020
    • What's Next?
    • Private companies evlolping space vehicles
    • Trying to explore beyond Earth
    • OPSEK
    • Russian project; new and better space station
    • Goal is to provide medicene, assamble and launch spacecrafts
  20. What are mass, volume, and density?
    • Mass- amunt of stuff in object; can be found by measuring with a balance. 2. Weight- how gravity pulls on an object's mass
    • 3. Volume- amount of space something takes up; can be found by length x width x height
    • 4. Density- amount of mass in a given space; can be found by dividing mass by volume
  21. Explain seasons.
    Seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth's atomosphere.  When it is Winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa.  The closer Earth is to the sun, the warmer it is.
  22. Make sure to review big bang theory article.