Angiosperms & Animals (Final Exam)

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Angiosperms & Animals (Final Exam)
2012-11-30 12:18:50
Angiosperms Animals Final Exam

Angiosperms & Animals (Final Exam
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  1. Angiosperms
    container seeds enclosed in ovary, Domain - Eukarya, Kingdom - Plantae, Pylum - Anthophyta 
  2. 2 Classes of Angiosperms
    • 1. Monocotyledons: parallel veination, grasses, corn, oats, wheat, barley
    • 2. Eudicotyledons: net veination, roses, maples, tomatoes, peanuts
  3. 4 Whorls of Modified Leaves of Flowers
    • 1. Sepals: protect bud
    • 2. Petals: attract pollinators
    • 3. Carpel: female part of flower
    • 4. Stamen: male part of flower
  4. Know the Difference Between Complete and Incomplete Flowers
    • Complete: have all 4 floral parts (sepals, petals, stamen, carpels)
    • Incomplete: missing one or more of the floral parts
  5. Know the Difference Between Perfect and Imperfect Flowers
    • Perfect: have both carpel and stamen in same flower
    • Imperfect: missing either carpel or stamen in flower

    *refers to parts on same flower NOT same plant
  6. Know the Difference Between Carpellate and Staminate Flowers
    • Staminate: male flowers with stamen only
    • Carpellate: female flowers with carpel only 
  7. Know the Difference Between Monoecious and Dioecious Plants
    • Monoecious: plant that has staminate and carpellate flowers
    • ex: Corn (incomplete, imperfect, monoecious)
    • Dioecious: staminate and carpellate flowers are on seperate plants
    • ex: Osage Orange (incomplete imperfect, dioecious)
  8. Know the Makeup of Pollen and Carpel 
    • Pollen: Tube Cell - help make pollen tube on carpel, Generative Cell - divides to form 2 sperm
    • Carpel: Micropyle - where sperm enter the ovule, Integuments - become protective cover of seed
  9. Know the Makeup of the Embryo Sac
  10. Cells That Makeup Embryo Sac
    1 Egg, 2 Synergids (one on each side of egg), 3 Antipodals, 2 Polar Nuclei
  11. Pollination
    Pollen lands on the stigma, sperm travel down pollen tube, to the micropyle where they enter embryo sac
  12. Methods of Seed Dispersal
    Wind (dandelion, maple), Water (coconuts, mangrove), Animals (Eaten and deposited in poop, or cling to)
  13. 4 Plant Organs
    flowers, roots, stems, leaves
  14. Modified Stems
    • Stolons: aboveground horizontal stem
    • Rhizomes: belowground horizontal stem
    • Tuber: underground stem that stores carbs
    • Bulb: vertical underground stem
  15. Know Differences Between Monocot and Eudicot Stems and Roots
    • Eudicot Stem - Pith
    • Monocot Root- Pith
    • Eudicot Root- No Pith
    • Monocot Stem - No Pith
  16. Modified Leaves
    • Tendrils: leaves for climbing (peas)
    • Spines: protection, reduce water loss (cactus)
    • Succulent: store water (aloe vera)
    • Brightly Colored Leaves: attract pollinators (poinsettas)
  17. Chytridiomycota
    • phylum closest living relatives to protists 
    • aquatic
    • decline in amphibians due to infections
  18. Zygomycota
    • phylum that reproduces using zygospores 
    • ex - black bread mold, Pilobus
  19. Ascomycota
    • phylum that reproduces using ascospores
    • commonly used in Meiosis research
    • ex - Morrell Mushrooms, cup fungi
  20. Mycorrhizae
    fungus that increases surface area for absorbing water and minerals, plant produces food for fungi (+,+)
  21. Lichens
    (+,+) relationship between fungus and algae / cyanobacteria
  22. Basdiomycota 
    • reproduce using basdiospores 
    • ex - bracket fungi, puff ball
  23. 4 Basic Elements of an Animals Body Plan
    • Number of tissue types found in embryo
    • Type of body symmetry and degree of cephalization (brain)
    • Presence or absence of fluid-filled cavity (organs)
    • Way in which the earliest events in the development of an embryo proceed
  24. Difference Between Parazoa and Eumetazoa 
    • Parazoa: lack tissues, Porifera (sponges)
    • Eumetazoa: animals with tissues, all others 
  25. Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm
    • Endoderm: become digestive tract and assoc. organs
    • Mesoderm: circulatory, muscles, bones, most other organs
    • Ectoderm: skin, nervous system
  26. Difference Between Diploblastic and Triploblastic
    • Diploblastic: 2 tissue layers as an embryo (ectoderm, endoderm), Cnidaria (jellyfish), Ctenophora (comb jellies, stingless)
    • Triploblastic: 3 tissue layers as an embryo, all others
  27. Know the 3 Types of Symmetry
    • Asymmetry: without symmetry (no planes of symmetry) ex - Porifera 
    • Radial: multiple planes of symmetry ex - Cnidaria 
    • Bilateral: single plane of symmetry ex - Chordata, Arthropoda, etc.... 
  28. Know Difference Between Acoelomate and Coelomate
    • Acoelomate: without fluid-filled body cavity ex - platyhelminthes
    • Coelomates: have fluid-filled body cavity ex - Annelida, Mollusca, etc..
  29. 2 Types of Coelomates
    • Pseudocoelomates: body cavity forms between mesoderm and endoderm during development which makes muscle on one side of body cavity. 
    • Coelomates: body cavity forms within mesoderm which makes muscle on both sides of body cavity.