DNA Structure and Replication

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DNA Structure and Replication
2012-11-12 20:14:33

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  1. a.      A __ programs the amino acid sequence.
                                                                  i.      The__ of bases in a gene specifies the __—the primary structure—of a protein
    • gene
    • linear order
    • amino acid sequence

  2. a.     __ are polymers made of monomers called __, or macromolecules that exist as polymers called __, consisting of monomers called __
    • Nucleic
    • acids
    • nucleotides
    • polynucleotides
    • nucleotides

  3.                                                               i.      DNA
    1.      Carries out__ as well as __, and through __, __

    a.      central dogma?
    b.      Creates __which interacts with ribosomes to create proteins
    2.      Genetic material inherited from parents
    3.      One long DNA in each __carrying hundreds of genes
    4.      Encoded in DNA is the info that__
    a.      Is not involved; __are required to implement these activities
    5.      Almost always exists as __
    • own replication,
    • RNA synthesis
    • RNA synthesis, protein synthesis
    • DNA--> RNA--> protein
    • mRNA
    • chromosome
    • programs all cell activities
    • proteins
    • double
    • helix

  4.                                                               i.      RNA
    1.      Transcribed in __--> __in cytoplasm--> __
    2.      More variable in shape compared to DNA
    • nucleus
    • ribosomes
    • polypeptide

  5.                                                               i.      five-carbon sugar (__) [use __ after them]
    1.      __for DNA lacks an __atom on the __ carbon in ring
    2.      __for RNA
    • pentose
    • prime
    • deoxyribose
    • oxygen
    • second
    • ribose

  6.                                                               i.      one or more __groups
    1.      The portion without any phosphate groups is __
    2.      Once the phosphate is added, it becomes a __
    • phosphate
    • nucleoside
    • nucleotide

  7.                                                               i.      Adjacent nucleotides are joined by __, which consists of a __ that links the __of two nucleotides
    1.      Results in backbone with repeating pattern of__ units
    • phosphodiester linkages
    • phosphate group
    • sugars
    • sugar-phosphate

  8.                                                               i.      DNA has two __, or strands, that spin in a __, running in opposite 5->3’ directions, causing them to be __
    a.      Two free ends are opposites
                                                                                                                                          i.      what are the ends?

    b.      Strands held together by __between __
                                                                                                                                          i.      __ pairs with __in DNA/ __in RNA
                                                                                                                                        ii.      Cytosine pairs with __
    c.       The two strands are __
    • polynucleotides
    • double helix
    • antiparallel
    • One end: 5 prime end/ other end: 3
    • prime end
    • hydrogen
    • bonds
    • paired bases
    • Adenine
    • thymine
    • uracil
    • guanine
    • complementary
  9.                                                               i.      RNA molecules can also __, giving it a __structure, like tRNA
    b.      DNA: polymer of nucleotides, each consisting of three components:
                                                                  i.      __    
    1.      Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
                                                                ii.      Pentose sugar called __
                                                              iii.      __group
    • complementary base pair
    • 3D
    • A nitrogenous base
    • deoxyribose
    • Phosphate
  10. a.      Watson and Crick
                                                                  i.      While studying protein structure __), Watson saw an__ image of DNA
    1.      After seeing the picture produced as X-rays were passed through aligned fibers of purified DNA, Watson recognized it as helical
    a.      Helix was made up of two strands= __
    b.      Sugar- phosphate backbones on __of DNA that run __to one another
    c.       Nitrogenous bases on __, away from aqueous solution
                                                                                                                                          i.      Adenine and guanine: __(two organic rings)
                                                                                                                                        ii.      Cytosine and thymine: __(single ring)
                                                                                                                                      iii.      Each base has __ that can form hydrogen bonds with partner base:
    1.      Adenineà __hydrogen bonds with thymine
    2.      Guanine à __ hydrogen bonds with cytosine
    • (X-Ray crystallography X-ray diffraction
    • double helix
    • outside
    • antiparallel
    • inside
    • purines
    • pyrimidines
    • chemical side groups
    • two
    • three
  11. a.      Replication
                                                                  i.      Parent strands act as __for duplication
    1.     __ are broken and two chains __
    2.      Each strand holds information necessary to reconstruct the other
    • templates
    •  Hydrogen bonds
    • unwind
  12. What is the semiconservative theory?
    • 1.      Watson and Crick’s model: semiconservative
    • a.      Two daughter molecules will have one old and one new strand
  13. Conservative Model
    • a.      Parent strands come back together
    • b.      First replication: parent with old DNA; new DNA with new strands
  14. Dispersive Model
    • a.     
    • All four strands have mixture of
    • old and new DNA
  15. Experiment that proved the semiconservative model
    • 1.      Meselson and Stahl
    • a.      Parent strand with heavy nitrogen-15 isotope; daughter strand with lighter nitrongen-14
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      After one replication= hybrid DNA
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Second replication= light and hybrid
    • b.      Through centrifuge, the DNA with light nitrogen-14 remained at top; heavy isotope sank
  16. a.      E. coli
                                                                  i.      Can copy all DNA and divide to form __in less than an hour
    b.      Human
                                                                  i.      __DNA molecules in nucleus: one long double-helical molecule per __(about 6 billion nucleotide pairs)
                                                                ii.      Replication with very few errors
    1.      Accurate and speedy
                                                              iii.      Sevreal enzymes and proteins involved
    • two daughter cells
    • 46
    • chromosome
  17. When DNA is in the 5--> 3 direction, which way does oxygen point?