-In 1972, the first Center for Independent Living was founded by disability activists, led by Ed Roberts, in Berkeley, California. These Centers were created to offer peer support and role modeling, and are run and controlled by persons with disabilities
- First consumer directed program
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) of 1990
-One of the most comprehensive piece to the US Constitution
- ADA) is a law that was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1990. It was signed into law on July 26, 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, and later amended with changes effective January 1, 2009
- civil rights law that prohibits, under certain circumstances, discrimination based on disability.
English poor law of 1601
1st attempt to get institutions to be standardized for disable and the poor.
In 1841 Dorothea Dix begins her campaign to improve conditions in mental hospitals in New Jersey and to persuade the state legislature to step up the construction of new institutions. Her efforts lead eventually to the establishment of 32 state-run mental institutions across the country.
Put in place July 9, 1867 by San Francisco City Council
Prohibited any person who is diseased, maimed, mutiliated, or in any way deformed so as to be an unsightly or disgusting object shall not expose himself to public view.
Ended in 1974- Illinois was the last to lift up the ugly law
Sterlization of People
In 1927 The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in Buck v. Bell declares forced sterilization of the "feebleminded" to be constitutional and affirms the right of states to sterilize citizens with disabilities against their will.
Legally-mandated sterilization was the most radical policy supported by the American eugenics movement
American Psychiatric Association
In 1941 U.S. psychiatrist Foster Kennedy writes in the journal of the American Psychiatric Association that retarded and "utterly unfit" children should be killed to save money and emotional trauma for the parents.
Not their finest moments in history
What percentage who are disabled are born with it?
15% born with a disability
85% acquire it throughout life
Are disabled people the largest minority group in American?
Traumatic Brain Injury
20% from violence
3% from sports
Related to: shaking baby syndrome, car/bike/motorcycle accident
504 Rehabilitation Act- What did it do for the disabled?
Guaranteed that employers contracting with the federal government could not discriminate against person with disabilities
First Social Security Act of 1935
Signed by Franklin D Roosevelt
the act provided permanent public assistance to the elderly, persons who were blind, and children with disabilities.
took off in 1920s
germany learned from US
sterlization of disable
institute disabled people
Moral model of disability
Immorality or sin
sins of parents
punishment from God
possess by demons
put disabled persons away in institutions
Olmstead Act of 1999
People have the right to live with support to stay out of institutions
The Supreme Court state that "recognition and unjustified institutional isolation of person with disabilities is a form of discrimination
Medical Model Aspects
Individual vs Environment
Need professional guidance
try to get rid of disability
Medical model with its faith that with correct intervention, all human abnormalities could be corrected.
When cure was not possible persons with disabilities could at least be trained to become functional to behave acceptably in social situations
First version of American Disability Act
The original version of the American with Disabilities Act was introduced in 1988 by Reagan appointees but never approved
Is disable community a culture?
Everyone in any culture is subject to being labeled and disabled
People with disabilites have formed their social and personal identities throughout history based on negative stereotypes.
People with disabilites face many challenges against society throughout history.
The awareness of the history towards people with disbilites improve more strength and control which has resulted in significant social and political change
Advances in Medicine has changed the number of disability
advances from 1950s to present
made it to where there were more disable people to work with
premature babies live longer lives
better antibiotics for spinal cord injuries
people are living longer
After WWII the development of chemotherapy from wartime gas experiments allowed many people to survive cancer
insuliin allowed others to live with diabetes
trauma centers emerged for people with head injuries