anat27.txt

Card Set Information

Author:
stephjg
ID:
183273
Filename:
anat27.txt
Updated:
2012-11-12 18:15:10
Tags:
ANAT390 GI System
Folders:

Description:
ANAT390 Lecture 27 GI System 2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user stephjg on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is the purpose of the stomach?
    The stomach initiates digestion of food.
  2. Describe the gastric mucosa.
    • Simple columnar epithelium
    • Gastric glands are found in the depressions of the epithelium
    • Apical/lumenal spithelial secretions are mucous, acid, and proteases
    • Basal secretions are hormones and paracrine factors
  3. Define rugae.
    Transient gastric mucosal folds
  4. How many sphincters are in the stomach and where are they located?
    • Lower Esophageal/Cardiac Sphincter
    • Pyloric Sphincter
  5. What are the six type of cells in the gastric epithelium?
    • surface lining cell
    • regenerative cell
    • mucous neck cell
    • oxyntic (parietal cell)
    • zymogenic (chief) cell
    • enteroendocrine cell
  6. What is the function of chief cells?
    • Secrete zymogens apically into the lumen
    • Zymogens are activated by acid hydrolysis 
  7. What is the function of enteroendocrine cells?
    • Secrete hormones and paracrine factors
    • ie. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) - increases peristalsis of intestines
    • Gastrin - increases parietal cell acid secretion in stomach and relaxes pyloric sphincter
  8. What is the function of the small intestine?
    • Digestive- via enzymes delivered to the small intestine from the pancreas
    • Absorptive - via mucosa
  9. Describe the layers of the small intestine.
    • Epithelium - simple columnar, absorptive cells (Enterocytes), protective mucous secreting goblet cells, anti-bacterial paneth cells
    • Lamina Propria - Loose connective tissue, many vascular capillaries and lymphatic capillaries (central lacteals), prominent MALT
    • Submucosa - alkaline, mucous secreting 'Brunner's Glands' 
  10. How does the small intestine increase its absorptive surface area?
    • Makes use of microvilli (projections) and crypts/glands (depressions)
    • Microvilli contain many channels/transporters in plasma membranes 
  11. What are paneth cells?
    • Contain apical pink/eosinophilic granules
    • Secrete antibacterial lysosymes
    • Can become phagocytic, antigen-presenting cells
  12. What are Brunner's Glands?
    • Exocrine, secretory glands found in the submucosa all the way to the muscularis mucosa
    • Secrete protective, alkaline mucous which is protective of acid produced by the stomach
    • Ducts empty into base of intestinal crypts
  13. Describe the MALT in the small intestine.
    • B and T Cell aggregates (no CT capsule)
    • Can be activated by Paneth cell-mediated Antigen Presentation
    • Pale germinal centers indicate B Cell Activation
    • Increase in numbers towards the terminal end of the small intestine
    • In appendix (at small/large intestinal junction, fill entire lamina propria)
  14. Describe the layers of the large intestine.
    • Mucosa: Absorptive (especially for H2O), crypts/glands present, but no villi
    • Epithelium:  Simple columnar; enterocytes with high number of goblet cells
    • Submucosa: no brunner's glands
    • M. Externa: Terminal thickenings= Anal Sphincters, smooth muscle internally and skeletal muscle externally
  15. Describe the junction of the terminal portion of colon with the anus.
    • There is an epithelial transition between columnar epithelium and stratified squamous epithelium.
    • The pectinate line is the interface between endoderm and ectoderm. 
    • Metaplasia can occur here as well.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview