Eukaryotic Polym Gen ex

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cooxcooxbananas
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Eukaryotic Polym Gen ex
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2012-11-13 15:35:46
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  1. What does RNA pol I do?
    transcribes all rRNA genes except for the 5S rRNA.
  2. what does RNA pol II do?
    synthesizes all mRNAs
  3. What does RNA pol III do?
    Transcribes all tRNA genes and the 5S rRNA gene and small RNAs
  4. What does RNA pol 1 encode?
    rRNA (28S, 5.8S, 18S)
  5. What does RNA pol II encode?
    mRNA
  6. What does RNA pol III encode ?
    • tRNA
    • 5SrRNA
    • snRNA
  7. Each eukaryotic RNA polymerase has __ large subunits and ____ smaller subunits
    • 2
    • 12-15
  8. The two large subunits in eukaryotic polymerases are homologous to the...
    E. coli beta and beta prime subunits
  9. Two smaller subunits of the eukaryotic polymerases are similar to the....
    E. coli alpha subunit
  10. the eukaryotic DNA polymerase does not contain any subunit that performs all of the functions of E. coli ____ factor. 
    sigma
  11. In eukaryotic RNA polymerases, The role of bacterial sigma factor is replaced by...
    general transcription factors
  12. List the 4 steps of the process of the DNA intron being spliced out of the mRNA.
    • 1) DNA is transcribed to pre-mRNA
    • 2) The 7-MG cap is added to the 5' end of the pre-mRNA
    • 3) The Poly (A) tail is added to the 3' end
    • 4) The intron is spliced out
  13. Explain how you can get heterochromatin through nucleosome remodelling.
    Histones will be wrapped in a DNA strand to create nucleosomes with the help of a repressor complex and the inactivation of the GENE X
  14. Explain how you get euchromatin by nuclesome remodeling.
    nucleosomes are unwrapped from DNA strand with the help of chemically modified histones, while the RNA polymerase with the help of the activated GENE X
  15. If a histone tail undergoes Lys acetylation, what results?
    • HAT
    • HDAC
  16. Histone tails that undergo Lys/Arg Methylation can result in....
    HMT
  17. Histone tails that undergo Ser/Thr phosphorylation can produce...
    kinase/phosphatase
  18. Epigenetics is...
    The study of heritable changes in DNA structure
  19. What is the transcription cycle?
    • Preinitiaition Complex (PIC) assembly (closed)
    • Open Complex Fromation
    • Initiation
    • Promoter Clearance
    • Elongation
  20. The core promoter is relatively...
    short
  21. What does the core promoter consists of?
    the TATA box
  22. What is the important function of the TATA box?
    important in determining the precise start point for transcription
  23. Where is the TATA box located in regard to the start of transcription?
    -30 from start of transcription
  24. The core promoter by itself produces...
    a low level of transcription (basal transcription)
  25. What is basal transcription?
    When the core promoter produces a low level of transcription
  26. Where is the CAT box located in regards to the start of transcription?
    -80 from the start of transcription
  27. The transcriptional start site in eukaryotes is usually an...
    adenine
  28. What factor binds to the BREU and BREd (B recognition Elements)?
    TFIIB
  29. What factor binds to the TATA-box?
    TBP
  30. What factors bind to the INR (initiator)
    • TFIID
    • Pol II
  31. What factors bind to DPE (Downstream Promoter Element)?
    TFIID
  32. TTFIID is a complex of proteins that includes ...
    • the TATA binding protein (TBP) and
    • Several TBP-associated factors (TAFs)
  33. TFIIB binds to what factor?
    TFIID
  34. What acts as a bridge to bind RNA polymerase II and TFIIF?
    TFIIB
  35. TFIIE and TFIIH bind to...
    RNA polymerase II
  36. TFIIE and TFIIH bind to RNA polymerase II to form..
    Preinitiaon complex (Closed Complex)
  37. TFIIH is a ______ that forms the open complex
    helicase
  38. TFIIH is a helicase that forms....
    the open complex
  39. What factors are released from the RNA polymerase to create the open complex?
    • TFIIB
    • TFIIE
    • TFIIH
  40. most mature mRNAs have a ________ covalently attached at their 5' end by an unusual 5'-5' phosphodiester bond.
    7-methyl guanosine
  41. most mature mRNAs have a 7-methyl guanosine covalently attached at their __ end by an unusual 5'-5' phosphodiester bond.
    5'
  42. most mature mRNAs have a 7-methyl guanosine covalently attached at their 5' end by an unusual....
    5'-5' phosphodiester bond
  43. What is capping?
    The addition of a 7-methyl guanosine covalently attached at their 5' end by s 5'-5' phosphodiester bond.
  44. When does capping occur?
    Capping occurs as the pre-mRNA is being synthesized by RNA pol II
  45. Usually, capping occurs when the transcript is only ____ to ____ bases long.
    20 to 25
  46. Most mature mRNAs have a string of adenines at the ___ ends
    3'
  47. the 3' end of mature mRNA is called...
    polyA tail
  48. The polyA is not ________ in the gene sequence
    encoded
  49. How is the poly A tail added to mRNA?
    Added by an enzyme called polyA polymerase after transcription
  50. What is the basepair sequence of the polyadenylation sequence?
    AAUAAA
  51. in the addition of PolyA tail to the 3' end of mRNA, endonuclease cleavage occurs about ____ nucleotides downstream from the AAUAAA sequence.
    20
  52. in the addition of PolyA tail to the 3' end of mRNA, endonuclease cleavage occurs about 20 nucleotides ______ from the AAUAAA sequence.
    downstream
  53. in the addition of PolyA tail to the 3' end of mRNA, endonuclease cleavage occurs about downstream nucleotides downstream from the ________ sequence.
    AAUAAA
  54. in the addition of PolyA tail to the 3' end of mRNA, __________ adds adenine nucleotides to the 3' end.
    PolyA-polymerase
  55. in the addition of PolyA tail to the 3' end of mRNA, PolyA-polymerase adds ______ nucleotides to the 3' end.
    adenine
  56. in the addition of PolyA tail to the 3' end of mRNA, PolyA-polymerase adds adenine nucleotides to the __ end
    3'
  57. mRNA sequences that code for protein are called...
    exons
  58. How are exons interrupted?
    Intervening sequences (introns)
  59. What are exons?
    mRNA sequences that code for protein
  60. Transcription by RNAPII produces...
    a pre-mRNA
  61. When a pre-mRNA is produced by transcription by RNAP II, the _____ are later removed from it.
    introns
  62. in the pre-mRNA ______ are connected together or spliced.
    exons
  63. RNA splicing occurs in...
    • eukaryotes for all RNAs
    • and occasionally in bacteria as well
  64. What is RNA splicing?
    When pre-mRNA is produced when RNAP II transcribes it, and the introns are removed, then the exons are connected together.

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