biological psych chap 9-11, 13

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awoods60
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183332
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biological psych chap 9-11, 13
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2012-11-12 22:32:27
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biological psych
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biological psychology vocab/test questions
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  1. annual rhythm generated from within
    endogenous circannual rhythm
  2. rhythm that lasts about a day
    endogenous circadian rhythm
  3. disruption of circadian rhythm due to crossing times zones 
    jet lag
  4. part of the hypothalamus that the biological clock depends on
    suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
  5. hormone released by the pineal gland that influences both circadian and circannual rhythms (sleep)
    melatonin
  6. someone who alters between periods of sleep and moderate arousal, although even during the more aroused state, the person shows no awareness of surroundings
    vegatitve state
  7. state at which a person has occassional, brief periods of perposeful actions and a limited amount of speech comprehension
    minimally conscious state
  8. condition with no sign of brain activity and no response to any stimulus
    brain death
  9. combination of EEG and eye-movement records
    polysomnograph
  10. characteristic of relaxation
    alpha waves
  11. sharp wave associated with temporary inhibition of neuronal firing
    K-complex
  12. stages 3 and 4 constitute
    slow-wave sleep (SWS)
  13. deep sleep in some ways and light in others
    paradoxical sleep
  14. stages other than REM
    non-REM sleep
  15. structure that extends from the medulla to the forbrain
    reticular formation
  16. part of the reticular formation that contributes to the cortical arousal 
    pontomesencephalon
  17. small structure in the pons, is usually inactive especially during sleep, but it emits bursts of impulses in response to meaningful events, especially those that produce emotional arousal
    locus coeruleus
  18. hormone for staying awake
    orexin
  19. provide axons that extend throughout the thalamus and cerebral cortex
    basal forebrain
  20. impaired ability to sleep while breathing
    sleep apnea
  21. disorder in which the person moves around vigorously during their REM  periods, apparently acting out their dreams
    REM behavior disorder
  22. temperature regulation and other biological processes that keep body variables within a fixed range
    homeostatis
  23. single value that the body works to maintain
    set point
  24. processes that reduce discrepancies from the set point
    negative feedback
  25. adaptive way in which the body changes its set points depending on the situation
    allostasis
  26. energy used to maintain a constant body temperature while at rest
    basal metabolism
  27. animals that have a body temperature that matches the temperature of their environment
    poikilothermic
  28. (mammals and birds) use physiological mechanisms to maintain a nearly constant body temperature despite changes in their environment
    homeothermic
  29. proteins secreted by leukocytes that attack intruders
    cytokines
  30. hormone released by the posterior pituitary that raises blood pressure by constricting blood vessels
    vasopressin
  31. enables kidneys to reabsorb water from urine and therefore make the urine more concentratted
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  32. tendency of water to flow acrosss a semipermeable membrane from the area of low solute concentration to the area of higher concentration
    osmotic pressure
  33. controls drinking
    lateral preoptic area
  34. thirst based on low volume
    hypovolemic thirst
  35. hormone that causes the kidneys, salivary glands, and sweat glands to retain salt
    aldosterone
  36. conveys information about the stretching of the stomach walls, providing a major basis for satiety
    vagus nerve
  37. conveys information about the nutrient contents of the stomach
    splanchnic nerves
  38. part of the small intestine adjoining the stomach
    duodemun
  39. limits meal size in 2 ways
    cholecystokinin
  40. enables glucose to enter the cells
    insulin
  41. stimulates the liver to convert some of its stored glycogen to glucose to replenish low supplies in the blood
    glucagon
  42. triggers stomach contractions
    ghrelin
  43. controls insulin secretion, alters taste responsiveness, and facilitates feeding in other ways
    lateral hypothalamus
  44. inhibits feeding
    ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
  45. prominent type of estrogen
    estradiol
  46. prepares uterus for the implantation of a fertilized ovum and promotes the maintenance of pregnancy
    progesterone
  47. produce long-lastng structural effects
    organizing effects
  48. contributes to control of male sexual behavior
    sexually dimorphic nucleus
  49. consists of the days around the middle of the menstrual cycle and the time of maximum fertility and high estrogen levels
    perioulatory period
  50. how we identify sexuall and what we call ourselves 
    gender identity
  51. overdevelopment of the adrenal glands from birth
    congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
  52. (operant conditioning) an individual's response elads to a reinforcer or punishment
    instrumental conditioning
  53. any event that increases the future probability of the response
    reinforcer
  54. event that suppresses the frequencing of teh response
    punishment
  55. physical representation of what has been learned
    engram
  56. short-term memory being transferred to long term memory
    consolidation
  57. the way we store information while we are working with it
    working memory
  58. inability to form memories for events that happeed after brain damage
    anterograde amnesia
  59. loss of memory for events that occurred before the brain damage
    retrograde amnesia
  60. development of motor skills and habits
    procedural memory
  61. brain damage caused by prolonged thiamine deficiency
    korsakoff's syndrome
  62. synapse that increases in effectivenesss because of simultaneous activity in the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons
    Hebbian synapse
  63. decrease in response to a stilulus that is presented repeatedly and accompanied by no change in other stimuli
    habituation
  64. one or more axons connected to a dendrite bonbard it witha  rapid series of stimuli
    long term potentiation
  65. T/F if a classically conditioned rat and then makes deep cuts into the cortex the rat will still remember the condition response after it recovers
    TRUE
  66. T/F Episodicmemory is memory for facts
    FALSE
  67. physical changes in the brain that happens when one learns something
    engram
  68. long term memory that has been in storage for a long time is apt for change 
    if it is activated and brought into use
  69. which of these is most resistent to loss on a person with memory loss 
    how to successfully through a basketball
  70. long term alcoholics often develop Korsakoff's because of lack of thiamine which
    interfers with glucose metabolism
  71. habbian synapses where
    neurons can more easily activate another neuron after repeated stimulus
  72. in cooperativity, while c is inactive and A and B are active, the result will be
    LTP develops, A and B strengthen, C and D weaken
  73. the process of a memory being firmed up with long term stoarge
    consolidation
  74. basic mechanism involved in habituation of apysia is
    decreased release of neurotransmitters
  75. Thompson decided that the later interpositus nucles was the site of elarning of a specific response because
    if the LIN was inactive= no learning, Red inactive=still learn
  76. damage to the hippocampus=
    apparent inability to form new long-term memories
  77. aplysia are useful for the study of the role of neurons in learning because
    they have simple, unifrom nervouse system
  78. if you were told that your cat had amyloid and Tau in his brain, you may suspect
    catty Alzheimers
  79. brain involved in AMPA and NMPA glutamate receptors (ETC) and that leaky calcium channels in old age, interferred with what process?
    long term potentiation
  80. which of these areas is most identified with learning?
    hippocampus

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