Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry
2012-11-12 23:33:19
Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry
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  1. The generic formula  is for what group?
  2. The generic formula  is for what group?
    Alkenes or cycloalkanes
  3. The generic formula  is for what group?
    Alkynes or cycloalkenes
  4. Saturated vs unsaturated
    • Saturated: HC's are single bonds/maximum amount of H attached
    • Unsaturated: HC's have one or more double or triple bond
  5. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    • highly unsaturated rings of hydrocarbons, with alternating single or double bonds. 
    • Unreactive: Cannot undergo addition, oxidation, or reduction
    • Has delocalised electrons
    • Benzene 
  6. What are the products of incomplete combustion and complete combustion?
    • Complete: 
    • Incomplete:  and/or 
  7. Reactivity of alkanes
    • Combustion (all organic molecules combust)
    • Little reactivity, aside from oxygen (combustion/oxidation)
    • Substitution in presence of UV light
  8. Reactivity of alkenes and alkynes
    • Addition reactions such as:
    • Hydrogenation: reacts with a catalyst (like Ni) to break the double (alkene) or triple (alkyne) bond
    • Halogenation: double bond (alkene) or triple bond (alkyne) is broken and a halogen attached to a C
  9. Bromine water is orange. 
    When its shaken with CYCLOHEXENE the mixture becomes colourless.
    Br2 is nonpolar. It dissolves in cyclohexene because it is also nonpolar. As an ALKENE group is present, Br2 undergoes an addition reaction. Br2 turns colourless when it reacts.
  10. Bromine water is orange. When its shaken with CYCLOHEXANE the mixture remains orange.
    Br2 is nonpolar. Cyclohexane is nonpolar, so Br2 dissolves in it. Alkanes can only undergo substitution reactions, so Br2 does not react and stays orange.
  11. Bromine water is orange. When its shaken with BENZENE the mixture remains orange.
    Br2 is nonpolar. Benzene is nonpolar and unreactive. Since there is no reaction the mixture stays orange.
  12. Carboxylic Acid reactions
    • Same reactions as acids.
    • Turns into carboxylate ions
    • COO-
  13. Amino Acids
    • Structures of proteins
    • Contains amino group  and carboxyl group 
    • Hydrogen from COOH group can be given to NH2 group which is then a Zwitterion
    • React by condensation reactions
  14. Aldehydes are produced from...?
    The oxidation of a primary alcohol
  15. Ketones are produced from...?
    The oxidation of secondary alcohols
  16. Are alkenes, alkanes, and alkynes polar or non polar?
    Non polar
  17. List 1-3 highester BP to lowest:
    alcohol, carboxylic acid, amide,
    • 1: amide
    • 2: carboxylic acid
    • 3: alcohol
  18. Properties of alcohols
    • Hydrogen bonds with water and alcohol molecules
    • Hydroxyl (OH) group is polar
    • Water+alkene = alcohol
    • Can react with sodium to produce an ion
    • As alcohol chain increases so do dispersion forces and therefore BP
  19. Properties of haloalkane
    • Dipole-dipole and dispersion forces
    • BP higher than alkenes because of increased polarity (dipole-dipole)
    • Increased polarity=more soluble in water (water is polar)
    • C is electropositive, halogens are electronegative
  20. Ether
    • Dipole-dipole and dispersion forces
    • formed by 2 molecules of alcohol
    • No hydroxyl group so no h-bonding with each other
    • SLIGHTLY polar (more so than alkanes)
    • Can h-bond with water, but not as much as alcohols
  21. Carboxylic Acids
    • Hydroxyl group, so can h-bond with itself and water
    • C=O bond, carbonyl group
    • High BP
    • Must be at the end of a chain
    • React like an acid
    • Can form carboxylate ion when reacted with base, metal, and carbonate
  22. Aldehydes
    • Hydrogen bonds with water (not itself because no hydroxyl group)
    • Dipole-dipole because of carbonyl group
    • Large BP and high solubility
    • Must be on the end of a chain
    • Produced by oxidation of a primary alcohol
  23. Ketones
    • Carbonyl group C=O so dipole-dipole
    • Hydrogen bonds with water, no hydroxyl group so not with itself
    • Must have 3 carbons 
    • Formed by oxidation of a secondary alcohol
  24. Ester
    • Formed by reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid
    • Dipole dipole because of C=O carbonyl group
    • Small esters are soluble
    • Need an acid catalyst to create
    • Condensation reaction (water is also produced)
    • Part from acid ends in -oate
    • part from alcohol is -yl
  25. Amines
    • Primary: bound to one C
    • Secondary: 2 C
    • Tertiary: 3 C
    • Nitrogen atom can act as a base
    • H-bonds with H or water
    • Lower BP than alcohol/amide/acid/carbonyl groups because N is less polar than O
    • Name ends in -ylamine
  26. Amide
    • Formed by condensation reaction between amine and carboxylic acid
    • Carbonyl group so dipole-dipole
    • Can hydrogen bond on O or N
    • Highest BP out of all functional groups because of H-bond possibilities on N and O
  27. Isomers
    • Cis-same side
    • Trans-opposite side
  28. How can you make an alcohol
    • Substitution: heat a haloalkane with NaOH = alcohol and salt
    • Addition: add water to an alkene with acid catalyst = alcohol
    • Fermentation: sugar + yeast = ethanol and CO2
    • Distillation
  29. Oxidation is...
    • Loss of H
    • Gain of O
  30. What is an alkoxide?
    sodium reacts with any alcohol to produce an ion